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Sources
1. Title:   The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens
Author:   Mike Ashley
Publication:   Carroll & Graf History
2. Title:   Uppity Women of Shakespearean Times
Author:   Vicki Le�o���L
Publication:   MJF Books
3. Title:   #69
Publication:   DK Publishing, Inc.

Notes
a. Note:   accused of inflicting a disease on her husband During the witch-happy Ren centuries, it didn't matter whetheryou were a filthy rich heiress or a poor granny who happened tolook cross-eyed at someone's cattle on a bad day: anyone withXX chromosomes stood a good chance of a sorcery accusation.No on was safe -- not even the queen of England. TakeSpanish-born Joan of Navarre, a sweet-tempered French royal whoput up with nine children and numberless tantrums from the dukeof Brittany, her first husband, only to end up nursing "no prizeeither" Henry IV of England, her second spouse.Joan's marriage to thirty-six-year-old widower Henry made herqueen of England in 1403 -- and instantly unpopular. Youthought the English dumped on Joan of Arc -- this poor Joan gottrashed as a money-brugging Frenchie. True, she'd brought herown national debt in the form of thousands of French regugeesfrom Brittany. (when she married Henry, she and her follwersbecame as popular as the plague, and were expelled by Brittanypoliticos.)Henry, meanwhile, was busy-busy-busy quelling revolts, thenbecame pretty revolting himself, what with a terminal case ofeczema and his grand mal epilepsy. Choking back a retch, QeenJoan nursed him for ten years until he died. And what thanksdid she get?Before the king was cold, his son Henry V revved up the HundredYears' War, which was showing sign of flagging. By 1419, hefelt peppy enough to hit his stepmother with a cockamamiecharge: She'd brought about itchy twitchy Henry's death throughwitchcraft, and practiced the black arts against him, herstepson.Was this curtains for Joan? Mor like vertical bars -- asemi-luxe lockup. Rather than toasting his stepmom on abonfire, Henry watned to flanbe her bank account. That darnedwar of his was expensive. As the young ruler was fond ofsaying, "If we're gonna make it last a hundred years, we'regonna need resources!" By charging the queen with sorcery, hegot to sequestr (hold and use!) the dowry that Queen Joan hadbrought to England -- a tidy 10 percent, give or take a groat,of the entire gross revenues of his government.So witchcraft it was. Joan remained a prisoner, treated withthat teeth-grinding politeness the English use when they reallyreally dislike someone, for three years. In 1422, the king feelunexpectedly ill, repented for his Joan-abuse, and set her free.Luckily he returned her good before dying. For the next fifteenyears, Joan lived in peaceful obscurity at Essex, while theworld outside her gates went for a war longevity record. Shewas the only English queen to be officially charged withwitchcraft, and punished for it. Unlike most accused witches,she never got a trial -- and afterwards, not even a "Gee, wegoofed!" notice.


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