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  1. Marie-Francoise Pinard: Birth: 15 NOV 1664 in Trois-Rivieres, P.Q.. Death: 18 DEC 1743 in St-Francois du Lac, Yamaska, P.Q.


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Notes
a. Note:   PINARD
  Louis PINARD was born in July 1634 in the parish of Ste. Marguerite, LaRochelle, Aunis. He died in January 1695 in Bastican at the age of 60. He arrived in Canada around 1658 as a master surgeon. The 1666 census of the Trois-Rivi�res area by Talon, lists him as a habitant and master surgeon and able to sign. His wife, Marie-Madeleine HERTEL, was also able to sign. At the time, there was a one-year old daughter in the household. Louis PINARD married Canadian-born Marie-Madeleine HERTEL in Trois-Rivi�res in October 1658. He was 24 and she was 13 years old. Although 13 at the time of her marriage, she did not have her first child until she was 19. It was customary in New France, at this time, to not consummate a marriage until the woman was at least 16. After her death around 1679, he remarried. His second wife was Ursule Pepin.
  Marie-Madeleine HERTEL was born in September 1645 in Trois-Rivi�res. Her brother, Fran�ois Hertel born in 1642 participated in the French & Indian wars and is considered a hero by Canadians. He was responsible for many of the successful raids on the western Massachusetts population. Fran�ois was captured by the Iroquois in 1658.
  Her uncle, Fran�ois Marguerie was an interpreter and explorer and companion of Champlain. He drowned in 1646 while crossing the Saint Lawrence River at Trois-Rivi�res.
  Louis Pinard and Marie-Madeleine Hertel had six children. The oldest son, Claude born in 1667 received permission to travel west in August 1691. The west, in this case, was probably no further than the Great Lakes. To control the fur trading and collect appropriate taxes, the French government issued passports (permits), a form of license. They were difficult to acquire since in many years, only 25 were issued. To conduct fur trading or to travel west without a passport was considered illegal and subject to punishment, most often fines or the confiscation of furs.
  Eldest daughter, Marie-Fran�oise born in November 1664 and married to Martin GIGUERRE in 1682 is my direct ancestor.
  [Excerpt from "Our French Canadian Ancestors, Thomas John LaForest]
  Louis Pinard made his first trip to Canada around 1648 as a "donne" of the Jesuits. At that time it was customary for the Jesuits to be accompanied by young men on their trips to the interior to meet with the native people. In return for the service of these boys, the Fathers saw to their education. He returned to France in 1650 to complete his studies. Through this first experience in Canadian territory Louis should be numbered among the founders of the mission Ste-Marie on the banks of Georgian Bay, what is now, Midland Ontario. He must have known Fathers Jean de Breboeuf and Gabriel Lalemant, who were martyred there in the spring of 1649. The constant Iroguois raids forced the French to abandon this Huron mission, whose ruins lay forgotten for three centuries. Recently this historic site has been restored and is today a National Park.
  Louis Pinard's patrons, having most likely discovered in him a natural talent for medicine and surgery, had him return to France at the age of 16 or 17 in order to learn the art of Hippocrates. Returning to Canada about 1656, young Doctor Pinard exhibited all the competence of a master surgeon. His future bride, Marie-Madeleine Hertel was not quite 12 years old when the marriage contract was written up. It is probably why Louis had to wait 2 years later to be married. By virtue of his being the surgeon of the garrison, Pinard was already in a position to provide a comfortable living for his wife and children. In addition he always looked out for himself even if he had to bleed some clients white to do so. Pinard was a grasping man who did not hesitate to appeal to justice when his interests were at stake. The civil and criminal court records from 1660 to 1665 eloquently demonstrate this. His name is mentioned 32 times in the Court Records of Trois-Rivieres, 1655-1662. See General Notes Chapter. On two occasions in 1663, Pinard sued his colleague, Dr. Michel Gemelain whose rivalry he dreaded. In spite of the cease and desist injunction from the Sovereign Council in 1663, he did not end his accusations.
  "Realizing that the struggle with Louis Pinard would be endless, Gamelain, perhaps on the advice of his mother-in-law, Madame Crevier, put his knowledge of medicine to the service of an industry much more practical and flourishing -- the distillation of brandy."
  Pinard's son Claude, later went on to marry his arch rival's daughter, Francoise Gamelain. We are also related to both these men although, in our case, the families did not come together until a couple of generations later.
  Pinard excelled in collecting debts. Several records show his relentlessness involving collecting money from the church, military and even nobility. Even though he may have been tough in his business dealings, the people of Trois-Rivieres had confidence in him. They elected him to the posts of town mayor and church warden. After 1670, Pinard became interested in the fur trade. In 1685 he took part in an expedition to Hudson Bay, returning home the following year.
  While it is true that Louis Pinard was 24 years and Marie-Madeleine Hertel was 13 years at the time of their marriage, their first child wasn't born until Marie-Madeleine was 19. It was customary in New France that a marriage with such a young bride would not be consummated until the wife was about 16 years old.
  More About Louis Pinard: Baptism: 12 Jul 1634, Chapelle Ste-Marguerite, La Rochelle, France59,60,61,62 Burial: 12 Jan 1694/95, Batiscan62 Census: 1666, 1666 and 1667, Cap de la Madeleine, master surgeon; 1681 in Champlain62 Dit Name: Lauziere Education: Bef. Sep 1647, completed his surgical studies with Francis Gendron in France Fact: 1685, took part in expedition to Hudson Bay Godparents: 12 Jul 1634, Louis Gaigneur; Madame Madeleine Mondot, femme de maitre Jean Gaigneur, procureur63 Immigration: Bef. Sep 1647, Quebec Name Variations: Pinar64 Occupation 1: Aft. 1656, master surgeon, procureur fiscal, tresorier Occupation 2: Aft. 1656, maire et marguillier de Trois-Rivieres Presence: 8 Sep 1647, Quebec City 65 Religion: Catholic66 Residence 1: Bef. Sep 1647, Cognac en Charente66 Residence 2: 1656, returned to Quebec as surgeon major at Trois Rivieres
  More About Marie Madeleine Hertel: Baptism: 2 Sep 1645, L'Immaculee-Conception, Trois Rivieres 67 Dite Name: Lafresniere
  More About Louis Pinard and Marie Hertel: Contract: 11 Jun 1657, Ameau68,69 Marriage: 29 Oct 1658, Trois-Rivieres69,70
  More About Marie Ursule Pepin: Baptism: 6 May 1662, Trois-Rivieres71 Fact: Jumelle de Marguerite. Godparents: Louis Pinard, Marie Madeleine Hertel
  More About Louis Pinard and Marie Pepin: Contract: 25 Nov 1680, Adhemar72 Marriage: 30 Nov 1680, Champlain, Champlain 73,74,75 Children of Louis Pinard and Marie Hertel are: + 17 i. Marie Francoise4 Pinard, born 15 Nov 1664 in Trois Rivieres . + 18 ii. Claude Pinard, born c 1667. + 19 iii. Louis Pinard, born c 1669. 20 iv. Marguerite Pinard, born c 167176; died 26 Oct 1742 in Quebec City. She married Francois Reiche Resche 18 Feb 1691/92 in Quebec City77; born c 1667 in Notre-Dame-de-la-Fort, Carcassone, France77; died 24 Jun 1727 in 60 ans; Quebec City77. ..............................................
  following translated from web-site: http://www.enter-net.com/~9sflauzi/engpin.html
  Louis Pinard-I- ?
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  In 1980, Monsieur Lucien Florent of Trois-Rivi�res and some friends founded the one name association :
  � Les Descendants de Louis Pinard inc. �
  From 1985 we have been affiliated with the F�d�ration des familles souches qu�b�coises.
  The principals goals of the association are :
  A) Find the maximum number of descendants of Louis Pinard (1634-1695) including the names Pinard, Beauchemin, Fleurent, Florent, Lauzier, Lauzi�re, Raiche, or others.
  B) Create a genealogique repertory from 1600 to present time . C) Fraternize together . --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Louis Pinard-I- ?
  The generation number one (I) is used after Louis Pinard's name because he is our first ancestor who married in New France. It is important to use the generation number after a name to prevent someone mistake of people whom have the same name .
  This is a part of brith certificate in french of Louis Pinard -I- from Ste-Marguerite-Marie parish of La Rochelle in France. � En ce..douzi�me jour de juillet.de l'an mille six cent trente quatre nous..... �
  In 1647, at the age of 13 years, Louis Pinard-I-, son of the Jean Pinard and Marguerite Gaigneur, came over to New France with FATHER Jean de Br�beuf, Gabriel Lalemant et Charles Garnier, Jesuit and his uncle GUILLAUME FENIOU.
  Young Louis Pinard-I- come as a "donn�" to work at the "St-Mary among the Hurons Mission " today Midland, Ontario. Being a "donn�" he worked for his food, lodging and education but without being paid a salary .
  In 1650, when the Jesuit Fathers decided to close the mission to prevent them from being exterminated by the Iroquois. Young Louis Pinard-I and the personnel left for Quebec City accompanied by some 400 Indians.
  Once in Quebec, Louis Pinard-I and most of the personnel left for France, " 23 august 1650" and studied to become a surgeon.
  At the age 23 after graduation, Louis Pinard-I decided to come back to New France and settle in Trois-Rivi�res, having residence in the fort, with the garrison, and working as a surgeon.
  In 1657, comtemplating marriage, he apprved a mariage contract with his future bride MARIE-MADELEINE HERTEL, daughter of JACQUES HERTEL and MARIE MARGUERIE.
  In 1658, Louis Pinard-I married with MARIE-MADELEINE HERTEL.
  In 1679, his beloved wife died after giving birth to five (5) children.
  In 1680, Louis Pinard-I remarried at Champlain near Trois-Rivi�res MARIE-Ursule P�pin, daughter of Guillaume P�pin and Jeanne M�chin. They had six (6) children during the second marriage.
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  The trips of Louis Pinard-I-
  Louis Pinard-I make many trips from France to Canada and back.
  1- crossing from Larochelle june-6-1647 to Qu�bec.
  2- crossing from Qu�bec august aout-23-1650 to Larochelle.
  3- crossing from Larochelle april-1-1651 to Qu�bec. 4- crossing from Qu�bec september-1-1651 to Larochelle
  5- crossing from St-Martin-de-R� april 1656 to Qu�bec 15 june 1656.
  6- crossing from Qu�bec august-3-1665 to Larochelle.
  7- crossing from Larochelle in 1666 Qu�bec.
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  In 1695, Louis Pinard-I- died in Batiscan, a town situated some 35 miles from Trois-Rivi�res to Qu�bec.
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  Version fran�aise
  " Writing in french by Lucien Florent and Roland Savard.
  " Translate in english by Roland Savard and Roberta Lauzi�re Kotch from NY USA.
  THE DESCENDANTS OF LOUIS PINARD
  Louis Pinard provided an extremely active career, and it seemed to be a man undertaking and ambitious, if one judges some by the few supports of documents o� it is a question of him. Thus expresses itself the historian Raymond Douville about Louis Pinard, the ancestor not only of those which always bear its name, but also of Beauchemin, Lauzi�re and much of Fleurent or Florent.
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  First stay in News-France
  Louis Pinard was baptizedat LaRochelle in the parish of Sainte-Marguerite on July 12, 1634. He is the fourth child of the middle-class merchant Jean Pinard and his wife Marguerite Gaigneur and small son of Louis Pinard and Gabrielle Mesnard de Cognac in Saintonge. Louis Pinard came to make a first stay in News-France about 1648 in the capacity as given Jesuits and it is turned over to France in 1650 in company of the surgeon Fran�ois Gendron in order to perfect his studies there.
  At that time, it is rather usual that the Jesuits are made accompany by teenagers in their p�rigrinations inside the grounds, at the tribes am�rindiennes. In return of small services, the monks take care of their education. The courses given between two tree trunks, spiced by the spirit of initiative and smartness which the Masters of the bush can inculcate to their pupils, are worth well the erudite doctrines vociferated between four walls.
  This first experiment in Canadian territory will be worth in Louis the honor to count among the founder of the mission of Sainte-Marie to the country of the Huron ones. Its owners, having probably detected at his place a natural talent for medicine and the surgery, all would bonnement have turned over it to France, at the sixteen years age, so that it learns all the code of practice.
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  Master surgeon
  Of return to Canada about 1656, Louis Pinard gives himself already all the competence of the Master surgeon. Always according to Douville, Pinard counts among the best surgeons than had the city then incipient from Three-Rivers.
  Its marriage contract on June 11, 1657, teaches us that the future wife Marie-madeleine Hertel, girl of fire Jacques Hertel and Marie Marguerie is not yet twelve years old; it is probably what explains why Louis must wait October 29, 1658 to present himself at the bridal ceremony, in the vault of Three-Rivers. By way of surgeon of the garrison, it is able to make live woman and children suitably. Moreover, it will always take care with great care of the well being as of his, had he to reach his ends to bleed with white some customers.
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  Hard in businesses
  This fact it will have certain difficulties with the inhabitants of Three-Rivers and the Cape of the Madeleine. Rough with the profit, Pinard does not hesitate to call upon justice when its interests are concerned. The registers of the courses civil and criminal of 1660 to 1665 show it eloquently. If it is hard in businesses, Trifluviens however put in him them confidence by electing it in turn syndic, marguillier and prosecutor of the church.
  Like the majority of people of his time, Louis Pinard cultivated the ground. In 1661 it acquires a concession of two arpents face on the river, on twenty-five of depth located in the Cape of the Madeleine, then another to always concede by the Jesuits in 1662 in the Cape, moreover it has also a site in the borough of Three-Rivers. In 1669, the Pinard ancestor will buy a property in the seigniory of Champlain of which he will become tax prosecutor. After several exchange of ground, it will be established has this place in 1681. The previous year indeed Louis was remari� there with a young widow, Marie-Ursule P�pin. Marie-madeleine Hertel died in 1679 will have given him five children. His second wife will give him six of them.
  After 1670, Louis Pinard is interested in the draft of the furs. In 1685, it belongs to forwarding in Hudson Bay, but it is back at his place as of the following year. In 1692, he is an army surgeon of Three-Rivers. This year there, his/her last daughter, Marie-Ursule, is baptized in Champlain. In 1694, its youngest child, Jean-baptiste will be baptized in Batiscan. Louis spins his last hank then since, January 12, 1695, one carries it out of ground in the small cemetery of his last ground of adoption: Batiscan.
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  Several nicknames
  Two kids of Louis Pinard avoided nicknames: Louis, married to Madeleine Renou, adds to his name that of Lauzier or Lauzi�re; Guillaume, married to Marguerite Leclerc, affixes that of Beauchemin there. Their descendants, in many cases, will drop the name from the ancestor to preserve only the nickname. and about - Trois-Rivi�res
  A few dates and events in the early history of the settlement:
  In 1634, Trois-Rivi�res became the second permanent site occupied by the French in America when a fort was established on 'le Platon', a plateau situated on hillock of land along the St. Lawrence River. Qu�bec having been established in 1608, was the first settlement.
  Between the years 1648-51, forty or so colonists, some with their families, came to establish themselves at Trois-Rivi�res. In 1650, a stone palisade enclosed the town.
  When the 1666 census was taken at the end of July, Trois-Rivi�res had a population of 602, Montr�al 760 and Qu�bec 2,857 for a total of 4,219 people in Canada. The average age of the habitants of the Trois-Rivi�res region was approx. 13 years old.
  In 1704, new fortifications were built to protect the habitants from the incessant Iroquois raids. Twenty-eight houses were within the fortifications, and several others built on the edge of the river. A windmill, situated nearby, served to grind the grain and also as a shelter in case of attack.
  In 1730, the iron works, des Forges du Saint-Maurice, were opened. In the early years, Trois-Rivi�res was a bustling fur-trading post.
  'This small settlement had become the meeting ground of the hardy spirits who had an itching of the foot, the coureurs de bois. Qu�bec was the port, the administrative center of New France; Montr�al was a brave experiment, an outpost existing in a state of spiritual fervor; Trois-Rivi�res was the starting point of exploration. Woodsmen had fallen into the habit of making it their winter quarters.'
  The White and the Gold -- The French Regime in Canada by Thomas B. Costain published by Doubleday Canada Limited, Toronto, Ontario 1954, 1970.
  Many of my ancestors lived and raised their families in this area (Pointe-du-Lac, Trois-Rivi�res, Cap-de-la-Madeleine, Champlain). Most of them were involved in fur trading in some way.
  Among some of the earliest settlers were the following: AUBUCHON BELLEM�RE BOULANGER BOURGIS BOUTON CAMIRAND COUC CUSSON DESROSIERS DUBOIS DUCLOS DURUAU FOUBERT FRIGON GIRARD GODEFROY GUILLET HERTEL JUTRAS LaFOND LeCLERC LeFEBVRE LeMAY LeNEUF LOISEAU M�NARD MORAL MO�ET NIQUET PINARD POTHIER RADISSON ROBERT T�TREAU VANASSE dit PRECOURT The source for the above information is Trois-Rivi�res, des t�moins de son �volution a 350-year commemoration pamphlet printed by the Biblioth�que nationale du Qu�bec in 1983.
  Census information taken from La population du Canada en 1666 by Marcel Trudel and published by "Les �ditions du Septentrion", Sillery (Qu�bec), PQ, Canada
  Source for the information on the women who were sent out by the King of France during the years 1663 to 1673 to help populate Canada is: Les filles du Roi en Nouvelle-France by Sylvio Dumas, published by La Soci�t� historique de Qu�bec, 1972
  .
  and from Canadian biographies:
  PINARD, LOUIS, master surgeon, donn� of the Jesuits, surgeon-major at Trois-Rivi�res; b. c. 1633, son of Jean Pinard and Marguerite Gaignier of Notre-Dame de La Rochelle; d. 1695.
  He came to Canada about 1648 as a surgeon and Jesuit donn�, and left for France again 23 Aug. 1650 with the surgeon Fran�ois Gendron to complete his surgical studies. A master surgeon upon his return in 1656 and established at Trois-Rivi�res, he immediately began to exercise his art for the benefit of the garrison. In 1666 Jacques Dubois was employed by him as a surgeon�s aid. Pinard is said to have taken part in the expedition to Hudson Bay in 1685 along with the surgeon Jacques Meneux dit Ch�teauneuf. Around 1690 he became surgeon-major of the town of Trois-Rivi�res. His son Claude was also to become a surgeon and undoubtedly began his studies under his father�s direction; he did his apprenticeship, however, under Jean Demosny at Quebec. In 1692 Pinard was the agent of Claude Deshaies-Gendron, and distributed in the region around Trois-Rivi�res �the remedies which M. Gendron sent to Canada for charity.�
  On 11 June 1657 Louis Pinard had signed before the notary S�verin Ameau* a contract of marriage with Marie-Madeleine Hertel, daughter of Jacques Hertel and Marie Marguerie. On 30 Nov. 1680 at Champlain he took as his second wife Marie-Ursule P�pin. Each of his wives bore him six children.
  Pinard does not seem to have had a very peaceful career: we find him engaged in legal disputes over money matters with a great number of citizens of Trois-Rivi�res and Cap-de-la-Madeleine. In particular he had quarrels with Michael Leneuf Du H�risson. Moreover he was in rivalry with the surgeon Michel Gamelain, whose competition be feared and who later became father-in-law to his son, the surgeon Claude Pinard. Nevertheless Louis Pinard seems to have been held in esteem, since he was for a long time one of the settlers� syndics, a churchwarden, and procurator of the church.
  In 1670 he settled down on his seigneury of L�Arbre-�-la-Croix at Champlain (seigneury of La Pinardi�re). There he engaged in agriculture and the fur trade. Later we find him at Batiscan, where he was buried 12 Jan. 1695.
  Gabriel Nadeau
  AJTR, Greffe de S�verin Ameau, 11 juin 1657. JJ (Laverdi�re et Casgrain), 143. Jug. et d�lib. Ahern, Notes pour l�histoire de la m�decine, 441�44. Raymond Douville, �Chirurgiens, barbiers-chirurgiens et charlatans de la r�gion trifluvienne sous le r�gime fran�ais,� Cahiers des Dix, XV (1950), 118�21.
  � 2000 University of Toronto/Universit� Laval



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