Henry 'THE BLACK': Birth: 1017.
Note: Encyclopedia: Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II (circa 990 - 1039) was the son of count Henry of Speyer. He was elected king in 1024 and crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire on March 26, 1027, the first member of the Salian Dynasty. During his reign, he proved that the German monarchy had become a viable institution. Survival of the monarchy was no longer dependent on contracts between sovereign and territorial nobles. Conrad grew up poor by the standards of the nobility and was raised by the bishop of Worms and was reputed to be prudent and firm out of consciousness of deprivation. In 1016 he married Gisela of Swabia, a widowed duchess. Both parties claimed descent from Charlemagne and were thus distantly related. Strict canonists took exception to the marriage and emperor Henry II used these findings to force Conrad into temporary exile. They became reconciled and upon Henry's death in 1024 Conrad appeared as candidate before the electoral assembly of princes at Kamba in the Rhineland. He was elected by the majority and was crowned king in Mainz on September 8, 1024. The Italian bishops paid homage at Conrad's court at Constance in June 1025, but lay princes sought to elect William III (V), Duke of Aquitaine, as king instead. However early in 1026 Conrad went to Milan, where archbishop Ariberto crowned him king of Italy. After overcoming some opposition of the towns Conrad reached Rome, where Pope John XIX crowned him emperor on Easter, 1027. He formally confirmed the popular legal traditions of Saxony and issued new constitutions for Lombardy. In 1028 at Aachen he had his son Henry elected and anointed king of Germany. Henry married Cunigunde or Gunhilda, daughter of King Canute the Great of England, Denmark, Sweden and Norway. This was an arrangement that Conrad had made many years ago, when he gave Canute the Great parts of northern Germany to administer. Henry, the later EmperorHenry III, became chief counsellor of his father. Conrad campaigned against Poland in 1028 and forced Mieszko II, son and heir of Boleslaus I, to make peace and return land that Boleslaw I had conquered from the empire during his father's reign. At the death of Henry II the bold and rebellious Duke of Poland Mieszko II had tried to throw off vassalage, but then submitted and swore to be emperor Conrad's faithful vassal. Mieszko II quit being self-anointed king and returned to being duke of Poland. When King Rudolf of Burgundy died on February 2, 1032, he left his kingdom to Conrad. (How? why? was he a legitimate blood heir?) Despite some opposition, the Burgundian princes (how many princes did Burgundy have? is this prince in the sense or ruler -- wasn't Burgundy ruled by a duke?) paid homage to Conrad in Zurich in 1034. This kingdom of Burgundy included Switzerland. It did not include the Duchy of Burgundy. That belonged at that time to the French King. Conrad upheld the rights of the valvassores (knights and burghers of the cities) of Italy against Archbishop Aribert of Milan and the princes. The princes as vassal lords and the bishop had conspired to rescind rights from the burghers. With skillful diplomacy and luck Conrad restored order. He went on to southern Italy, to Salerno and Anversa and appointed Richer from Germany as abbot of Monte Cassino. Encyclopedia: Speyer Speyer (formerly often called Spires in English) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. 50000 inhabitants, located on the Rhine river. It neighbours Worms and Mainz. History Archaeological data suggests that the site of the city was originally inhabited by Celts around 500 BC. In 10 BC, the first Roman military camp is established (situated between the city hall and the episcopal palace). In 346 a bishop for the town is mentioned for the first time. In 496 or 506 the name "Spira" first occurs. In 1030, emperor Conrad II starts the construction of Speyer cathedral, today one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. In 1076, emperor Henry IV embarks from Speyer, his favourite town, for Canossa. In 1294 the bishop loses most of his previous rights, and from now on Speyer is a free city of the Holy Roman Empire. Between 1527 and 1689 Speyer is the seat of the Imperial Chamber Court (Reichskammergericht). In 1529 at the Diet of Speyer, the Lutheran estates of the empire protest against the anti-Reformation resolutions (hence the term Protestantism.) In 1689, the city is heavily damaged by French troops. Between 1792 and 1814 Speyer is under French jurisdiction. In 1816 Speyer becomes the seat of administration of the Palatinate and of the government of the Rhine District of Bavaria (later called the Bavarian Palatinate), and remains so until the end of World War Two. Between 1883 and 1904 the Memorial Church is built in remembrance of the Protestation of 1529. In 1947 the State Academy of Administrative Science is founded (later renamed German University of Administrative Sciences Speyer). 1990 2000th anniversary of Speyer. During the return trip to Germany an epidemic broke out amongs the troops. Conrad's daughter-in-law and stepson died. Conrad himself returned safely and held several important courts in Solothurn, Strasbourg and in Goslar. His son Henry was invested with the kingdom of Burgundy. A year later in 1039 Conrad fell ill and died in Utrecht. UID 597CF988-4ED0-440F-805F-338904CF0118
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