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1. Title:   The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens
Page:   p.524
Author:   Mike Ashley
Publication:   Robinson, London, 1999
2. Title:   The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens
Page:   p. 524
Author:   Mike Ashley
Publication:   Robinson, London, 1999

a. Note:   "NOTES: a.k.a.: Richard the Lion Hearted; Reign: 1189-99; When he was an i nfant, Richard was betrothed to a daughter of the French king Louis VII a nd in 1172 he was given the duchy of Aquitaine in France (his mother's inh eritance). When he became king of England, he set out on the Third Crusa de with Philip II, king of France (son of Louis VII). The Crusade was a fa ilure. As king, Richard had chosen able ministers to whom he left most mat ters of administration. Under his rule, however, England suffered heavy ta xation, levied to support his expeditions. Sometimes cruel, sometimes magn animous, and always courageous, Richard was well versed in the knightly ac complishments of his age and was also a poet. He was to become the he ro of many legendary tales." Royal Genealogies Part 29. Royal Genealogies -- Menu The site a hugh amount of information Denis R. Reid 149 Kimrose Lane Broadview Heights, Ohio 44147-1258 Internet Email address: Richard I of England From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. at King of the English, Duke of the Normans and Aquitanians, Count of the Ang evins Richard I (September 8, 1157 � April 6, 1199) was King of England from 11 89 to 1199. In his own time, the troubadour Bertran de Born called him Oc- e-Non (Yes-and-No), while some later writers referred to him as Richard t he Lionheart, C�ur de Lion, as he is still known in France. He was often referred to as Richard the Lionheart, Coeur de Lion a nd Oc et Non by the French, and Melek-Ric by the Saracens (his name in Ara bic used to frighten children: "King Rick will get you if you don't wat ch out!"). He was considered a hero in his day and has often been portray ed as one in works of literature. He became known as an ambitious man. Contents 1 Early life 2 Reign 3 The struggle for Sicily 4 Richard on the Third Crusade 5 Captivity and return 6 Overall assessment 7 Folklore Family The third legitimate son of King Henry II of England, Richard was never ex pected to ascend to the throne. He is generally considered to have been t he favourite son of his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine. Richard was a young er maternal half-brother of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. He w as a younger brother of William, Count of Poitiers, Henry the Young King a nd Matilda of England. He was also an older brother of Geoffrey II, Du ke of Brittany, Leonora of England, Joan Plantagenet and John Lackla nd of England. Early life The third of King Henry II's legitimate sons, Richard was never expect ed to accede to the throne. He was, however, the favourite son of his moth er, Eleanor of Aquitaine. Although born in Oxford, England, he soon ca me to know France as his home. When his parents effectively separate d, he remained in Eleanor's care, and was invested with her duchy of Aquit aine in 1168, and of Poitiers in 1172. This was his consolation prize f or the fact that his eldest brother, Henry the Young King, was simultaneou sly crowned as his father's successor. Richard and his other brother, Geof frey, duke of Brittany, thus learned how to defend their property while st ill teenagers. As well as being an educated man, able to compose poet ry in French and Proven�cal, Richard was also a magnificent physical specim en (his height is estimated at six feet four inches tall) and gloried in m ilitary activity. From an early age he appeared to have significant politi cal and military abilities, became noted for his chivalry and courage, a nd soon was able to control the unruly nobles of his territory. As with a ll the true-born sons of Henry II, Richard had limited respect for his fat her and lacked foresight and a sense of responsibility. In 1170, his elder brother Henry the Young King was crowned king of Engla nd as Henry III. Historians know him as Henry "the Young King" so as n ot to confuse him with the later king of this name who was his nephew. In 1173, Richard joined his brothers, Henry and Geoffrey, Duke of Brittan y, in a revolt against their father. They were planning to dethrone the ir father and leave the Young King as the only king of England. Henry II i nvaded Aquitaine twice. At the age of seventeen, Richard was the last of t he brothers to hold out against Henry; though, in the end, he refused to f ight him face to face and humbly begged his pardon. In 1174, after the e nd of the failed revolt, Richard gave a new oath of subservience to his fa ther. After his failure Richard concentrated on putting down internal revol ts by the dissatisfied nobles of Aquitaine, especially the territory of Ga scony. The increasing cruelty of his reign led to a major revolt of Gasco ny in 1183. Richard had a terrible reputation, including reports of vario us rapes and murders. The rebels hoped to dethrone Richard and asked his b rothers Henry and Geoffrey to help them succeed. Their father feared th at the war between his three sons could lead to the destruction of his kin gdom. He led the part of his army that served in his French territori es in support of Richard. The Young King's death on June 11, 1183, ended t he revolt, and Richard remained on his throne. Young Henry's death left Richard as the eldest surviving son and the natur al heir when the old King died. However, there was some uncertainty over K ing Henry's intentions. When Geoffrey also died, Richard was the only real istic possibility, his youngest brother, John, being too weak and inexperi enced to be considered as an alternative. From the Young King's death Rich ard was considered -- though not officially proclaimed -- heir to the joi nt thrones of England, Normandy and Anjou. In 1188 Henry II planned to con cede Aquitaine to his youngest son John Lackland, later King John of Engla nd. In opposition to his father's plans, Richard allied himself with Ki ng Philip II of France, the son of Eleanor's ex-husband Louis VII by his t hird wife, Adela of Blois. In exchange for Philip's help against his fathe r, Richard promised to concede his rights to both Normandy and Anjou to Ph ilip. Richard gave an oath of subservience to Philip in November of the sa me year. In 1189 Richard attempted to take the throne of England for himse lf by joining Philip's expedition against his father. They were victoriou s. Henry, with John's consent, agreed to name Richard his heir. On Ju ly 6, 1189 Henry died in Chinon, and Richard succeeded him as King of Engl and, Duke of Normandy, and Count of Anjou. He was officially crowned du ke on July 20 and king in Westminster on September 3, 1189. Reign As a result of an incident during Richard's coronation celebrations, relig ious and political persecution of the Jews took place throughout the count ry. Richard has been criticised for doing little for England, siphoning t he kingdom's resources by appointing Jewish moneylenders to support his ti rades away on Crusade in the Holy Land, indeed, he spent only six mont hs of his ten year reign in England, claiming it was "cold and always rain ing." Richard had one major reason for discontent with his father. Henry had app ropriated Princess Alice (not the same Alice as Richard's half-sister), t he daughter of the French king and Richard's betrothed, as his mistress. T his made a marriage between Richard and Alice technically impossib le - at least in the eyes of the church, but Henry, not wishing to cau se a diplomatic incident, prevaricated and did not confess to his misdee d. As for Richard, he was discouraged from renouncing Alice because she w as Philip's sister. While the rumor that Richard and Phillip were lovers r emains at the level of rumor, Richard's sexual preference for men is actua lly well-documented. He even personally confessed to it at least onc e. As biographer John Gillingham notes, "it is not possible to argue th at he was not homosexual." Whether or not he and Philip were lovers, th ey quickly became enemies and, within a few years, were at one another's t hroats. Leaving the country in the hands of various officials he designated (inclu ding his mother, at times), Richard spent only a small fraction of his rei gn in England, being far more concerned with his possessions in what is n ow France and his battles in Palestine. He had grown up on the Continen t, and had never seen any need to learn the English language. Soon after h is accession to the throne, he decided to join the Third Crusade, inspir ed by the loss of Jerusalem to the "infidels" under the command of Saladi n. Afraid that, during his absence, the French might usurp his territorie s, Richard tried to persuade Philip to join the Crusade as well. Philip ag reed and both gave their crusader oaths on the same date. Richard did not concern himself with the future of England. He wanted to e ngage in an adventure that would cause the troubadours to immortalise h is name, as well as guaranteeing him a place in heaven. The evidence sugge sts that he had deep spiritual needs, and he swore an oath to renounce h is past wickedness in order to show himself worthy to take the cross. He s tarted to raise a new English crusader army, though most of his warriors w ere Normans, and supplied it with weapons. He spent most of his father's t reasury, raised taxes, and even agreed to free King William I of Scotla nd from his oath of subservience to Richard in exchange for 10,000 mark s. To raise even more money he sold official positions, rights, and lan ds to those interested in them. He finally succeeded in raising a huge ar my and navy. After repositioning the part of his army he left behind so th at it would guard his French possessions, Richard finally started his expe dition to the Holy Land in 1190. Richard appointed as regents Hugh, Bish op of Durham, and William de Mandeville, who soon died and was replac ed by Richard's chancellor William Longchamp. Richard's brother John was n ot satisfied by this decision and started scheming against William. The struggle for Sicily In September 1190 both Richard and Philip arrived in Sicily. In 1189 Ki ng William II of Sicily had died. His heir was his aunt Constance, later Q ueen Constance of Sicily, who was married to Emperor Henry VI. But immedia tely after William's death, William's cousin, Tancred, rebelled, seized co ntrol of the island and was crowned early in 1190 as King Tancred I of Sic ily. He was favored by the people and the pope but had problems with the i sland's nobles. Richard's arrival caused even more problems. Tancred had i mprisoned William's widow, Queen Joan, who was Richard's sister, and did n ot give her the money she had inherited according to William's will. Richa rd demanded that his sister be released and given her inheritance. Meanwhi le the presence of two foreign armies caused unrest among the people. In O ctober, the people of Messina revolted, demanding that the foreigners lea ve the island. Richard attacked Messina and captured it on October 4, 119 0. After looting and burning the city Richard established his base in i t. He remained there until March 1191 when Tancred finally agreed to si gn a treaty. The treaty was signed during the same month by Richard, Phil ip and Tancred. According to the treaty's main terms: Joan was to be released, receiving her inheritance along with the dowry h er father had given to the deceased William. Richard and Philip recognized Tancred as legal King of Sicily and vow ed to keep the peace between all three of their kingdoms. Richard officially proclaimed his nephew, the son of Geoffrey, Arthur of B rittany, as his heir, and Tancred promised to later marry one of his daugh ters to Arthur when he came of age (Arthur was only four years old at t he time). After signing the treaty Richard and Philip left Sicily. The treaty underm ined England's relationships with the Holy Roman Empire and caused the rev olt of Richard's brother John, who hoped to be proclaimed heir inste ad of their nephew. Although his revolt failed, John continued to scheme a gainst his brother after this point. Richard on the Third Crusade During April Richard stopped on the Byzantine island of Rhodes to avoid t he stormy weather. He left in May but a new storm drove Richard's fle et to Cyprus. On May 6, 1191, Richard's fleet arrived in the port of Lemes os (now Limassol). Richard captured the city. When the island's despot Isa ac Dukas Comnenus arrived to stop the Crusaders he discovered he was too l ate, and retired to Kolossi. Richard called Isaac to negotiations but Isa ac broke his oath of hospitality and started demanding Richard's departur e. Richard ordered his cavalry to follow him in a battle against Isaac's a rmy in Tremetusia. The few Roman Catholics of the island joined Richard 's army and so did the island's nobles who were dissatisfied with Isaac 's seven years of tyrannical rule. Though Isaac and his men fought bravel y, Richard's army was bigger and better equipped, assuring his victory. Is aac continued to resist from the castles of Pentadactylos but after the si ege of his castle of Kantaras he finally surrendered. Richard became the n ew ruler of Cyprus. Richard looted the island and massacred those trying to resist him. Meanwh ile, Richard was finally able to marry the woman to whom he was engaged, w ho had been brought by his mother to join him on the crusade route. His ma rriage to Princess Berengaria of Navarre, first-born daughter of King Sanc ho VI of Navarre, was held in Limassol on May 12, 1191. It was attend ed by his sister Joan, whom Richard had brought from Sicily. There we re no children from the marriage; opinions vary as to whether it was ev er a love match. The unfortunate Berengaria had almost as much difficul ty in making the journey home as her husband did, and did not see Engla nd until after his death. Richard and most of his army left Cyprus for the Holy Land early in Jun e. In his absence Cyprus would be governed by Richard Kamvill. Richard arr ived at Acre in June 1191, in time to relieve the siege of the city by Sal adin. Deserted by Philip and having fallen out with Duke Leopold V of Aust ria, he suddenly found himself without allies. Richard's tactics ensured success at the siege of Acre and on the subseque nt march south, Saladin's men being unable to harass the Crusader army in to an impulsive action which might not have gone their way. However, the d esertion of the French king had been a major blow, from which they could n ot hope to recover. Realising that he had no hope of holding Jerusalem ev en if he took it, Richard sadly ordered a retreat. Despite being only a f ew miles from the city, he refused, thereafter, to set eyes on it, since G od had ordained that he should not be the one to conquer it. He had final ly realised that his return home could be postponed no longer, since bo th Philip and John were taking advantage of his absence to make themselv es more powerful. Having planned to leave Conrad of Montferrat as "King" of Jerusalem and Cy prus in the hands of his own prot�eg�e, Guy of Lusignan, Richard was dealt a nother blow when Conrad was assassinated before he could be crowned. His r eplacement was Richard's own nephew, Henry I of Champagne. Captivity and return On his return to Europe in the autumn of 1192, Richard was captured by Du ke Leopold � whom he had publicly insulted in the course of the crusa de � and was handed over as a prisoner to the Emperor Henry VI after bei ng held captive at D�urnstein. Although the circumstances of his captivi ty were not severe, he was frustrated by his inability to travel freely. N evertheless, he spent the remainder of his reign attempting to regain t he territory he had lost in France. After his departure in May 1194, he ne ver returned to England. Overall assessment There is no doubt that Richard had many admirable qualities, as well as ma ny bad ones. He was a military mastermind, and politically astute in ma ny ways; yet incredibly foolish in others, and unwilling to give way to pu blic opinion. He was capable of great humility as well as great arroganc e. He loved his family, but behaved ruthlessly to his enemies. He was reve red by his most worthy rival, Saladin, and respected by the Emperor Henr y, but hated by many who had been his friends, especially King Phili p. He was often careless of his own safety: the wound which killed him ne ed not have been inflicted at all if he had been properly armoured. Almo st the same thing had happened, ten years earlier when, while feuding wi th his father, he had encountered William Marshal while unarmed and h ad to beg for his life. Richard's existence had been one whole series of c ontradictions. Although he had neglected his wife and had to be command ed by priests to be faithful to her, she was distraught at the news of h is death. During his absence, his brother John had come close to seizing the thron e; Richard forgave him, and even named him as his heir in place of Arthu r, who was growing into an unpleasant youth. With his 77 year-old moth er at his side, Richard died on 6 April 1199 from the after-effec ts of an arrow wound received during the siege of Chalus in France and w as buried next to his father at Fontevraud Abbey near Chinon and Saumur, F rance. It is said that he summoned Pierre Basile, the crossbowman who h ad delivered the fatal wound to his bedside, and was so impressed with t he man's refusal to be cowed that he pardoned him. Richard was succeeded by his brother John as king of England. However, h is French territories initially rejected John as a successor, preferring h is nephew Arthur of Brittany, the son of their late brother Geoffrey, who se claim was technically better than John's. Folklore The tales of Robin Hood are traditionally set during the reign of Richa rd I. However, the only certainty about Robin Hood is that he lived some t ime during the 12th and/or 13th centuries. It was not until much later th at a connection came to be made between the two men. The typical usa ge of the link is that the major political goal of Robin's war is to resto re Richard to the throne after Prince John usurped it. ACCEDED 9/3/1189 (CROWNED WESTMINSTER); RULED FROM 1189-1199; KNOWN AS "COUER-DE-LYON""RICHARD THE LIONHEARTED"; ROMANTIC, FECKLESS AND ABSENTEE KING; CRUSADER; AN INTERESTING, IF UNFOUNDED, FOOTNOTE, IS THAT RICHARD MAY HAVE BEEN A CANNIBAL - DURING THE 3RD CRUSADE HE SUPPOSEDLY KEPT PRISONERS ON HAND IN CASE HE RAN OUT OF FOOD (AUGUSTAN SOCIETY OMNIBUS, BOOK 12, P107) BIBLIOGRAPHY: Burke, Sir John Bernard, Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and Baronetage, The Privy Council, Knghtage and Companionage. 72nd edition. London: Harrison & Sons, 1910. Louda, Jiri, and Michael MacLagan, Heraldry of The Royal Families of Europe. New York: Clarkson Potter, 1981. Morris County Library 929.6094. Mississippienne, Grandchildren of Eleanor of Aquitaine. Posting to soc.genealogy.medieval (email list GEN-MEDIEVAL) on 10/17/2005-223052. Subject: Grandchildren of Eleanor of Aquitaine. Available at Author address: Mississippienne at gmail dot com. Moriarty, G Andrews, Plantagenet Ancestry of King Edward III And Queen Philippa. Salt Lake: Mormon Pioneer Genealogical Society, 1985. LDS Film#0441438. nypl#ARF-86-2555. Paget, Gerald, The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. London: Charles Skilton Ltd, 1977. Nypl ARF+ 78-835. Previte-Orton, C. W., The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge: University Press, 1952. Chatham 940.1PRE. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. II: Die Ausserdeutschen Staaten Die Regierenden Hauser der Ubrigen Staaten Europas. Marburg: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1984. Tapsell, R. F., Monarchs, Rulers, Dynasties and Kingdoms of the World. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1983. RESEARCH NOTES: crowned King of England Sep 3 1189 [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p25] 1169-1199: Duke of Aquitaine [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p211] 1189-1199: Duke of Normandy, as Richard IV [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p203] 1189-1199: Count of Anjou [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p204] also King of Cyprus and Jerusalem [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p25] slain by an arrow from the Castle of Chalus, in Limosin, which he had invested [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p25] dsp of a wound received at the seige of Chalus in Aquitaine [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p15] King of England 1189-1199 Maloney, Hendrick & Others - J. H. Maloney
b. Note:   BI62688
c. Note:   DI62688
d. Note:   XI62688
e. Note:   NF28311
Note:   Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p25, ES II #56, ES II #83, Paget HRHCharles p15, Paget HRHCharles p63] 1191 [Ref: Louda RoyalFamEurope #2], place: [Ref: ES II #56, Paget HRHCharles p15], names: [Ref: CMH p600, Moriarty Plantagenet p149] is NOT responsible for the content of the GEDCOMs uploaded through the WorldConnect Program. The creator of each GEDCOM is solely responsible for its content.