(Unk) Tudor: Birth: 1534. Death: 1534
? Tudor: Birth: 1536. Death: 1536
Note: Anne Boleyn From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Boleyn Anne Boleyn, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke (c.1501/1507 � May 19, 1536) was the second wife and queen consort of Henry VIII and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I of England. Henry's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and marriage to Anne was part of the complex beginning of the considerable political and religious up heaval which was the English Reformation, with Anne herself actively promoting the cause of Church Reform. She is probably best known for her premature death when she was beheaded on false charges of adultery and treason. Her life has been the subject of numerous biographies, novels, motion pictures, plays and operas. The Six Wives of King Henry VIII Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr Contents 1 The birth controversy 2 Childhood and Family 3 A royal love affair 4 The power behind the throne 5 Marriage 6 Life as Queen 7 1536 8 The fall of Anne Boleyn 8.1 Theories 9 Later reputation 10 Portraits 11 Modern-day pardon 12 Recommended Biographies 13 External links The birth controversy Historians cannot agree precisely when Anne Boleyn was born. An Italian historian, writing in 1600, suggested that she had been born in 1499; whilst Sir Thomas More's son-in-law suggested a much later date � 1512. Nowadays the debate centers around two key dates: 1501 and 1507. Two great authorities on the period, Eric Ives and Retha Warnicke � both of whom have written biographies of Anne � disagree. Ives promotes the 1501 date, whilst Warnicke believes the later 1507 is correct. The evidence supporting the later date is slightly stronger, given that a friend of Anne's stepdaughter later claimed that Anne had been approaching her twenty-ninth birthday at the time of her death in 1536 and an Elizabethan writer, William Camden, stated firmly that Anne had been born in 'MDVII' (1507). It is also extremely unlikely that Anne would have been over thirty at the time of her marriage, because such an age was considered unhealthy for a first-time mother. There is, however, a letter from Anne in about 1514 which, some people believe, suggests she was a teenager when she wrote it. This is hardly conclusive and a full examination of the letter is still required, as both sides currently claim it as supporting evidence. The debate may never be fully solved since parish records chronicling precise dates of birth were not kept until the time of Elizabeth I. Some other writers, like Paul Friedmann, Norah Lofts and Hester W. Chapman, all suggested that a birthday somewhere between 1501 and 1507 might be the safest guess � such as 1505. Childhood and Family Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire and 1st Earl of Ormonde, and his beautiful wife Lady Elizabeth Boleyn (n�ee Lady Elizabeth Howard), daughter of the 2nd Duke of Norfolk. It is not known for certain where she was born � but it was either at her family's mansion of Blickling Hall in Norfolk or at their favorite home of Hever Castle in Kent. There are two known siblings of Anne. Her sister Mary was probably a little older than she was and her brother George may have been younger. The controversy about the order of the children is described by Ives (20 05 pp16-17). In later life, Anne did not have a particularly affectionate relationship with her father but in her childhood she was anxious to please him. Her relationship with her sister Mary was problematic because Anne disagreed with what she saw as Mary's promiscuous lifestyle and the two were not on speaking terms at the time of Anne's death. Anne enjoyed a much happier relationship with her mother and her brother George, both of whom she was very close to. Spiteful rumors would later describe the Boleyn family as practically middle-class, but recent research has disproved this. Anne had a very powerful aristocratic heritage - her great-grandparents included a Lord Mayor of London, a duke, an earl, two aristocratic ladies and a knight. She was certainly more aristocratic than either Jane Seymour or Catherine Parr, two of Henry's other wives. She was also the elder cousin of Henry's fifth wife, Lady Catherine Howard. Anne's father was a respected diplomat with a gift for languages and he had been a favorite of Henry VII and Henry VIII, who sent him on many diplomatic missions abroad. In Europe, Thomas Boleyn also won many admirers who were impressed with his professionalism and charm - including Archduchess Margaret of Austria, the daughter of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. Margaret was currently ruling the Netherlands on behalf of her father and caring for her nephew and three nieces. Margaret was so impressed with Thomas that she offered his youngest daughter Anne a place in her house hold. Ordinarily a girl had to be twelve years old to have such an honor, but Anne was evidently somewhat younger as Margaret affectionately referred to her as ''la Petite Boleyn''. Anne made a good impression in the Netherlands thanks to her good manners and her determination to work hard at her education. She is believed to have lived there from the spring of 1513 to the autumn of 1514. Intellectually brilliant, Anne was physically attractive. She was not beautiful by contemporary standards, since she was considered too thin and too dark. However, many people commented on her magnificent dark eyes and beautiful dark hair. One Italian who met her in 1532 wrote that she was "not one of the handsomest women in the world," but others thought she was " competent belle" ("quite beautiful") and "young and good-looking." In short, Anne was of above-average physical looks, but she definitely made the most of her natural appeal. Anne's personality was complex, and it has been greatly distorted by those opposed to her marriage and religious views. She was a devout Christian in the new tradition of Renaissance Humanism (calling her a Protestant would be too strong). She was also a very loyal woman who gave generously to charity and, contrary to popular myth, she was extremely emotional. In her youth she was "sweet and cheerful," enjoyed gambling, drinking wine and gossiping. She was also brave and charismatic. Her personal motto loosely translated as This will be, no matter who grumbles! and "The Most Happy." She was also well-educated, clever and charming. The French ambassador, Giles de la Pommeraye, was completely captivated by her and paid tribute to her formidable intellect and influence over English foreign policy. The diplomat John Barlow was devoted to her and spied for her in Rome. Later in life this ability to attract fanatical male devotion back-fired spectacularly when she found herself the object of feverish unrequited love from a Dutch musician in her household called Marc Smeaton. Yet Anne could also be extravagant, neurotic and bad-tempered. In a temper, she could be particularly vicious and she emotionally wounded or embarrassed many of the people around her. Her enemies claimed this was the main part of her character, but her friends stated categorically that her temper � whilst explosive � was never unprovoked. Her time in the Netherlands was followed by some years in France where she was a favored lady-in waiting to Queen Claude of France and also a translator whenever any English visitors arrived to meet the Queen. In the Queen's household, she completed her study of French as well as acquiring a thorough knowledge of French culture and etiquette. She also developed an interest in fashion and the religious philosophy which called for reform of the Church. Anne's European education ended in the winter of 1521 when she was summoned back to England on her father's orders. The French Royal Family protested at her leaving but it was to no avail and Anne sailed from Calais in January 1522. A royal love affair On her return to England, Anne became a lady-in-waiting to Queen Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII's Spanish wife, who had failed to give Henry the son he desired. Catherine was popular with the people, but she had been inactive in politics and court life for some time. Anne made her court d�ebut at a masquerade ball in March 1522 where she performed an elaborate dance, accompanied by the king's sister and his mistress (Anne's sister Mary). Five other ladies also had a part to play. Anne was known as the most fashionable and accomplished woman at the Court and she has been referred to as ''the Court Butterfly'' and ''the glass of fashion''. During this time, there was much talk of marrying Anne to one of her cousins, James Butler, the son of Sir Piers Butler. This was cancelled for uncertain reasons. It is presumed that Anne's father was secretly against the marriage, which had been engineered by the king's chief minister Thomas Wolsey who had shown himself to be the enemy of the Boleyns in previous years. Around 1522, Anne began being courted by Lord Henry Percy, the son of the Earl of Northumberland. Some say that they became lovers, while others maintain that it was just a simple courtship. The latter was probably true. It would have been impossible to break their betrothal if it had been consummated and Anne had seen too many reputations ruined to risk her s. She seems to have reacted with prudish disdain to her sister's brief affair with Henry VIII. The romance was broken off in 1523 when Lord Henry's father refused to sanction the marriage when he heard of it from Cardinal Wolsey. Legend has it that the liaison was secretly broken up because Henry desired Anne for himself. It is impossible to say if this is true and historians are divided on the issue. Anne was briefly sent from court to Hever Castle in Kent. She spent summer there before returning to Court and gathering a clique of female friends and male admirers for herself. She kept all of her admirers at arm's length and the poet Sir Thomas Wyatt complained that she was unobtainable and temperamental and headstrong, despite seeming demure and quiet. In 1525 Henry VIII also fell in love with her and began his pursuit. Anne's sister, Mary, had previously been King Henry's mistress. There was no truth in the rumor that her two children were Henry's bastards, since they were born after the affair had ended. There is also no truth in the much later rumor that Anne's mother had been Henry's mistress too. It seems that this scandalous accusation arose over a confusion of the Boleyn name with that of an early mistress of Henry's, Elizabeth Blount. Henry's affair with Mary had been ended for sometime when he fell in love with Anne. In any case, she refused to become the King's mistress, and she effectively dodged his advances for over a year. Feminist historians now believe Anne was suffering as a silent victim of 16th century sexual harassment. Anne's mood altered rapidly between feeling flattered at these royal attentions and angry exasperation at his refusal to leave her alone. The King fell deeper and deeper in love with her. Henry proposed marriage to her sometime in 1527 (probably around New Year), and after some hesitation, she agreed. It is often thought that Henry's infatuation with Anne led him to seek a way to annul his existing marriage. However there is good evidence to suggest that Henry may well have made the decision to set aside his marriage with Catherine of Aragon solely because of her failure to bear him a male heir. He believed this was essential to prevent the collapse of the Tudor dynasty which had only been secured by his father Henry VII of England on winning the Wars of the Roses in 1485. At first, Anne was kept in the background but by 1528 it was common knowledge that the King intended to marry her. She kept herself out of politics and she enjoyed a civil relationship with Henry's chief minister Cardinal Wolsey, despite her father's hatred of him. In London, Anne became the victim of a public hate campaign mobilized by Queen Catherine's supporters. At Court, however, she reveled in her newfound lifestyle. Henry paid for everything and Anne spent a fortune on magnificent gowns, jewels, decorations, renovations and on maintaining a hectic social life that centered on lavish balls, dinner parties, gambling and hunting. She was particularly fond of importing French fashions, which she popularized, and buying diamonds and rubies for her beautiful dark hair. Anne had taken the decision not to sleep with Henry before their marriage. Henry initially objected to this, but later he too came to agree with the idea since it meant that any children they had would surely be born in legitimate wedlock. The couple spent much of the day together but at night retired to their own private apartments. At this time, Anne was also given her own staff and several ladies-in-waiting to advertise the fact that she was now the next queen. The power behind the throne In 1529 it still seemed as if Pope Clement VII was no nearer to granting Henry a divorce than he had been in 1527. Anne's spies reported that part of the problem was her supposed ally, Cardinal Wolsey, who had assured her that the Pope would help make her queen. A group of aristocrats opposed to Wolsey had been at court for over a decade and they saw Anne as the perfect instrument to help topple the Cardinal from power. Henry refused to be persuaded until Wolsey's promises once again proved unfounded, when one of the Pope's delegates in England refused to find in the King's favor and instead referred the matter back to Rome. Anne maintained pressure until Wolsey was dismissed from public office in 1529. Henry insisted upon Wolsey returning to York and keeping out of politics. The Cardinal begged Anne to help him return to power, but although she used ''kind words'' in answer to his pleas her diplomacy meant nothing because she absolutely refused to help him. Wolsey then began a secret plot with the depressed Queen Catherine to enlist Papal Support in having Anne exiled permanently from Court. When this plot was discovered, Anne flew into a terrible rage and from that moment onwards she developed a vicious hatred for Catherine that would remain with her for the rest of her life. Henry ordered Wolsey's arrest and had it not been for Wolsey's death from a terminal illness in 1530 he may have been executed for treason. A year later Catherine was banished from Court. With Wolsey gone, Anne became the most powerful person at Court. She had a great say over appointments and political matters. She clashed with the king's new chief minister, Sir Thomas More, who was opposed to the religious reform which was the cause Anne and her brother supported. Her exasperation with the Vatican also persuaded her to promote a new alternative to Henry. She suggested that he should follow the advice of religious radicals like William Tyndale who denied Papal Authority and believed that the monarch should lead the Church of his own nation. When the devoutly Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury died, Anne had her family's chaplain � Thomas Cranmer � appointed to the vacant position. She also facilitated the rise of Thomas Cromwell, who became the king's favorite new adviser. In later years, she would regret this. During this period, Anne also played an enormous role in England's international position, by solidifying the French alliance. She established an excellent rapport with the French ambassador, Giles de la Pommeraye, who was captivated by her. With his help, she helped arrange an international conference at Calais in the winter of 1532 in which Henry hoped he could enlist the support of the French king for his marriage to Anne. Before going to Calais Henry gave Anne the title Marchioness of Pembroke. Anne's family also profited from this: her father, already Viscount Rochford, was created Earl of Ormonde and then Earl of Wiltshire. Thanks to Anne's intervention, her widowed sister Mary received an annual pensi on of �100, and Mary's son Henry Carey received a top-quality education in a prestigious Cistercian monastery. Thanks to this, Anne's relationship with her sister became warm once more and the two were soon seen in each other's company at Court. The royal jewels were also taken from Catherine of Aragon and re-sized to fit Anne's more slender neck. She sailed to Calais equipped like a queen. Marriage The conference was a political triumph, since the French government gave their support for Henry's re-marriage. Immediately upon returning to Dover in England, Henry and Anne went through a secret wedding service. After that they enjoyed a long honeymoon in Anne's native county of Kent, finally enjoying a sexual relationship after seven years of frustration. Anne became pregnant within a few months and the couple had another more public wedding Mass on January 25, 1533 at Anne's favorite palace of Whitehall. Catherine was formally stripped of her title as queen in time for Anne's coronation in May 1533. In defiance of the Pope, Cranmer now declared that the English Church was under Henry's control not Rome's. This was the famous "Break with Rome," which signaled the end of England's history as a devout Roman Catholic country. Few people were aware of the significance at the time and even fewer were prepared to defend the Pope's authority. Anne was delighted at this development. She was a Catholic, but s he believed the Papacy was a corrupt and immoral influence on Christianity . The cost of Anne's coronation was enormous and the festivities lasted for three days. Catherine's supporters turned out in force to state their opposition to the new queen, but Anne also made a good impression on other members of the City. She was not universally popular but religious reformers and patriots (who preferred an English queen to a Spanish one) championed her. After the Coronation, Anne settled into a quiet routine to prepare for the birth of her child. She was deeply distressed when Henry was caught committing adultery with a young palace maid, which provoked their first serious row. Anne won however when the girl was dismissed, since Henry wanted nothing to jeopardize her pregnancy. Henry and Anne's child was born slightly prematurely on September 7, 1533 at the King's favorite palace of Greenwich. Disappointingly, the child was a girl who was christened Elizabeth in honor of Henry's mother � Elizabeth of York. She was given a splendid christening, but Anne feared that Catherine's daughter Mary would still have enough popular support to threaten Elizabeth's position. Henry soothed Anne's fears by separating Mary from her many servants and sending her under guard to Hatfield House, where Princess Elizabeth was also given her own magnificent staff of servants. The country air was better for the baby's health but Anne was an affectionate mother who regularly visited her daughter. Her visits were also the scenes of friction between Anne and Princess Mary who referred to Anne as "''my father's mistress,''" whilst Anne called Mary "''that cursed bastard.''" Life as Queen Anne had a larger staff of servants than Catherine before her. There were over 250 servants to tend to Anne's personal needs, everything from priests to stable-boys. The elite of her household were her favorite ladies-in-waiting, who included her close friend and cousin Lady Margaret Lee. There were also over sixty maids-of-honor, who served Anne and accompanied her to social events. In return, their parents hoped the Queen would act as their chaperone and arrange a suitable marriage for them. Anne maintained a strict control over her maids' morals and spiritual well-being, chastising Margaret Shelton when she was caught writing poetry in her prayer book. She also employed several priests, who acted as her confessors, chaplains and religious advisers. Her favorite was the religious moderate Matthew Parker, who would become one of the chief architects of the modern Church of England under Anne's daughter Elizabeth I. Anne's reputation as a religious reformer spread through Europe and she was hailed as a heroine by Protestant figures � even in Germany Martin Luther viewed her rise to the throne as a positive sign. She also saved the life of the French radical Nicolas Bourbon, who was sentenced to death by the French Inquisition. Anne appealed to the French Royal Family who spared Bourbon's life as a favor to the English queen. Bourbon would later refer to Anne as "the Queen whom God loves." Although Anne championed religious reform � especially translating the Bible into English � she did not challenge the core of Catholic belief which was the sacred doctrine of Transubstantiation. She was also a generous patron of charity � far more so than Catherine of Aragon. Anne gave heavily to poor relief, agricultural programs and educational foundations. Often, she and her ladies would sew shirts for the poor or beautiful cloths to decorate High Altars in churches. As queen, Anne also enjoyed having a good time. In the 1500s, royals were expected to be magnificently extravagant in order to convey to their people the importance and strength of the monarchy. Anne certainly did this and she spent an astronomical amount on her hundreds of gowns, jewels, head-dresses, tiaras, ostrich-feather fans, riding equipment and the finest furniture and upholstery from across the world. Numerous palaces were renovated to meet her exacting standards and it was from Anne that Henry learnt to love architecture � one of the most expensive tastes of the king's life. Anne's social life continued to be hectic and glamorous. A group of young gentlemen continued to visit the queen's apartments, where they flirted with her ladies-in-waiting and danced elegantly with the Queen when she wanted them to. At times, Anne too flirted with them but this had always been part of her nature. She never stepped beyond propriety, even going so far as to reprimand them if they became too jovial with either her or her maids. There was nothing new in this, for a group of young men had also served as Catherine of Aragon's adherents in the 1510s, it was only later that this behavior would harm Anne's reputation. Anne's married life continued to lurch from storm to sunshine. The royal couple still enjoyed periods of calm and affection, but Henry's frequent in fidelities greatly wounded Anne who reacted with tears and rage to each new mistress. For his part, Henry found Anne's strident opinions about religion and politics as intolerance and he saw her failure to give him a son as a betrayal. Anne's second pregnancy ended in a miscarriage in the summer of 1534. There were also unfounded rumors that she was pregnant aga in in 1535. The French Ambassador watched with amazement at the frosty atmosphere between the royal couple at a banquet in 1535. When he asked Anne about it later in the evening she laughed sadly and later told him that she felt utterly lonely and that she could feel the eyes of the entire Court spying on her. This pressure inflamed Anne's temper and she clashed with her ambitious uncle, the Duke of Norfolk, whom she banished from his apartments when she discovered his loyalty to her was suspect. When her sister Mary secretly married a commoner Anne reacted with fury by exiling Mary from her Court � this may also have had something to do with the queen's recent miscarriage which had left her emotionally disoriented. Both sisters refused to apologize to one another � Mary wrote a letter proclaiming her undying love for her new husband but repeated her affection for Anne. Anne responded by sending Mary a magnificent bejeweled present when she had a baby daughter in 1535. Even so, the two sisters did not meet again. Anne was also blamed for the tyranny of her husband's government. When Henry's old adviser Sir Thomas More was beheaded in 1535 for refusing to break his oath of loyalty to the Pope Anne was publicly blamed for pushing the King into signing the Death Warrant. This was untrue, however. Anne d d not like More but there is no evidence that she had pushed for his death. It is unlikely she defended him, but he had acknowledged her as queen instead of Catherine. More died because he would not acknowledge Henry as Head of the Church of England. 1536 In January 1536 Catherine of Aragon died of cancer. Anne attempted to repair relations with Catherine's daughter, Mary, but she was once again rudely rebuffed. At the time, none of this bothered Anne because she was pregnant once more. However, she was concerned about the king's latest mistress � Jane Seymour � who was one of Anne's maids. She often found Jane wearing jewels the King had given her. On one occasion, Anne ripped a locket from Jane's neck and slapped her face. Later, she walked into a deserted room to find Henry and Jane in an embrace. A few days later, Henry fell from his horse and nearly died. The combined stress proved too much for Anne and she suffered a miscarriage on January 29. This was the beginning of the end of the royal marriage. What happened next is one of the most controversial periods of English history. Anne spent almost two weeks in bed, recovering from her miscarriage whilst Henry declared she was cursed by God. Jane Seymour was moved into new apartments and Anne's brother was refused a prestigious court honor, the Order of the Garter, which was instead given to Jane Seymour's brother. She was irritable and depressed throughout the early months of 1536, fearing that she was about to be divorced. The fall of Anne Boleyn A Flemish musician in Anne's service named Marc Smeaton had been arrested and tortured by Thomas Cromwell. He had denied that he was Anne's lover, but under the torture he confessed. He also provided the names of another courtier � Sir Henry Norreys (or Norris) � who was an old friend of Anne's. He was arrested on May Day but since he was an aristocrat he could not be tortured. Norris denied his guilt and swore that Anne was absolutely innocent. Sir Francis Weston was arrested two days later, which shocked Anne because she didn't like him. William Brereton, a groom of the King 's privy chamber, was also arrested on grounds of adultery, But it seems likely he was innocent and was in fact the victim of an old grudge against him held by Thomas Cromwell. Anne's own brother was also arrested on charges of incest and treason. Anne Boleyn's terror was realized on May 2, 1536 when she was arrested at luncheon and taken up the River Thames to the Tower of London. In the Tower, Anne suffered a minor nervous breakdown demanding to know full details of her family's whereabouts and the charges against her. The four gentlemen were tried on May 15. Weston, Brereton and Norris publicly maintained their innocence and only the tortured Smeaton supported the government by pleading guilty. Two days later, Anne and George Boleyn were tried separately. Anne displayed great bravery at her trial and the spectators spread word of her courage. Popular suspicion against Henry and his mistress Jane Seymour was widespread and pamphlets appeared attacking their behavior. Anne was accused of adultery, incest, treason and witchcraft. One eyewitness reported that she gave "such wise and discreet answers ". Even so, the King demanded her head and she was condemned to death. On May 17 � the day Anne's "lovers" were publicly beheaded � Anne was stripped of her title as queen and her daughter Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. The following day Anne heard Mass for the last time. In front of numerous witnesses she swore on the Blessed Sacrament that she was innocent. This convinced hundreds of people that she must be innocent, for Christians believed that a lie told on the Sacrament would condemn one to Hell forever. When her jailer told her that she was to be given the honor of being executed by a French expert with the sword she laughed. "I heardsay that the executioner was very expert," she laughed, "and I have a little neck!" Her jailers were amazed at the composure she now had � "She hath much joy in death," one wrote. Anne dressed in an elegant gray dress and styled her famous dark hair on the morning of May 19, 1536. A crowd of officials had gathered to watch her execution. She gave a short speech in which she did not admit to any guilt but diplomatically avoided attacking the King in case he sought revenge on her surviving relatives. Her serenity shocked many people watching her. She knelt down and was blindfolded with a linen handkerchief. The French swordsmen did not use a block, so the victim died kneeling upright. Anne died praying, "To Jesus Christ I commend my soul." The silver sword took her head off almost instantly. She was buried in the nearby Chapel of Saint Peter-ad-Vincula. Theories Historians still debate over why these extraordinary events took place. Th ere are four main theories about Anne Boleyn's demise, which the Oxford hi storian Steven J. Gunn described as historical "''trench warfare''". Guilty as Charged The English historian George W. Bernard is the only o ne to argue that Anne was guilty of adultery and treason. In 1991 he wrot e, "Perhaps the safest guess for a modern historian is that Anne had inde ed committed adultery with Norris and briefly with Mark Smeaton and that t here was enough circumstantial evidence to cast reasonable doubt on the de nials of the others." A Romantic Victim The traditional theory has usually been that Anne was t he victim of her husband's vicious cruelty and that her failure to produ ce a son meant that Henry would stop at nothing to get rid of her. The fam ous Tudor historian, Sir Geoffrey Elton believed that: - "Anne and five m en were put to death by due process of law because the king wished to mar ry again ... Henry had now so far discarded scruple that to get his way EXECUTED BIBLIOGRAPHY: Cokayne, George Edward, Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant. Gloucester: A Sutton, 1982. Paget, Gerald, The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. London: Charles Skilton Ltd, 1977. Nypl ARF+ 78-835. Powys-Lybbe, Tim, A medley of Hoo, Bourchier, Boleyn, etc. Posting to soc.genealogy.medieval (email list GEN-MEDIEVAL) on 7/26/1999-002952. Subject: A medley of Hoo, Bourchier, Boleyn, etc. Available at http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/1999-07/0932945392. Author address: tim at southfrm dot demon dot co dot uk. Weir, Alison, The Six Wives of Henry VIII. NY: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991. MCL 942.052 RESEARCH NOTES: 1st Marchioness of Pembroke, of Marquessate cr 1532 [Ref: CP X p403]
Note: Sources for this Information: date: abt 1501 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p91, Weir HenryVIII #2], place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33], parents: [Ref: CP IX p618f, Paget HRHCharles p33, Paget HRHCharles p91], father: [Ref: Tim Powys-Lybbe SGM 7/26/1999-002952] Sources with Inaccurate Information: date: abt 1507 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33]
Note: Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: CP X p404, Paget HRHCharles p33, Paget HRHCharles p91] 1536 [Ref: CP IX p618f], place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33]
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