Elizabeth Plantagenet: Birth: Abt 1464.
Note: Edward IV (4th Duke of York, KG), b. Rouen 28 Apr 1441, d. 9 Apr 1483, proclaime King 4 Mar 1461; m. at Grafton, Northants, 1 May 1464 Elizabeth, buried 10 June 1492, widow of Sir John Grey of Groby, daughter of Sir Richard Wydville. [Magna Charta Sureties] 1461 - The Yorkist victory at the Battle of Towton, Yorkshire secured his claim to the English throne. Henry VI, whom Edward overthrew in 1461, was brought back to power by Richard "The Kingmaker" Neville, Earl of Warwick during a brief period in Oct 1470 - Apr 1471. From Barry Hummel, Jr, World Connect db=siderhummel, rootsweb.com: "Edward IV (reigned 1461-70 and 1471-83) was able to restore order, despite the temporary return to the throne of Henry VI (reigned 1470-71, during which time Edward fled to the Continent in exile) supported by the Earl of Warwick, 'the Kingmaker', who had previously supported Edward and who was killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471. Edward also made peace with France; by a shrewd display of force to exert pressure, Edward reached a profitable agreement with Louis XI at Picquigny in 1475. At home, Edward relied heavily on his own personal control in government, reviving the ancient custom of sitting in person 'on the bench' (i.e. in judgement) to enforce justice. He sacked Lancastrian office-holders and used his financial acumen to introduce tight management of royal revenues to reduce the Crown's debt. Building closer relations with the merchant community, he encouraged commercial treaties; he successfully traded in wool on his own account to restore his family's fortunes and enable the King to 'live of his own', paying the costs of the country's administration from the Crown Estates profits and freeing him from dependence on subsidies from Parliament. Edward rebuilt St George's Chapel at Windsor (possibly seeing it as a mausoleum for the Yorkists, as he was buried there) and a new great hall at Eltham Palace. Edward collected illuminated manuscripts - his is the only intact medieval royal collection to survive (in the British Library) - and patronised the new invention of printing. Edward died in 1483, leaving by his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville a 12-year-old son Edward to succeed him." DUKE OF YORK; ACCEDED 3/4/1461 (CROWNED WESTMINSTER); RULED FROM 1461-1470; DEPOSED 10/3/1470; RESTORED 4/11/1471; RULED FROM 1471-1483 RESEARCH NOTES: King of England [Ref: CP XII/2 p181, Tapsell Dynasties p176, CP II p495, Thompson CharlesII #142] 4th Duke of York, of Dukedom cr 1385 [Ref: CP XII/2 p909] 7th Earl of March, of Earldom cr 1328 [Ref: CP VIII p454] 9th Earl of Ulster, of Earldom cr 1264 [Ref: CP XII/2 p181] 3rd Earl of Cambridge, of Earldom cr 1414 [Ref: CP II p495] created Earl of March, presumably on his father's resignation, probably in Sep 1445, but possibly between 21 Sep and (probably) 22 Dec 1445 and (certainly) before 3 Nov 1453 [Ref: CP XII/2 p909 (with corr in XIV p642)] 1461-1471 and 1471-1483: King of England [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p176] before Dec 30 1460: Earl of March [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p29] Dec 30 1460: 4th Duke of York [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p29] Mar 4 1461: proclaimed King [Ref: Weis MC #161, Paget HRHCharles p29] Jun 29 1461: crowned [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p29] Oct 9 1470: deposed by Richard Nevill 1st Earl of Warwick, and fled to Flanders [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p29] Apr 14 1471: returned to England and defeated Warwick and the Lancastarians at Barnet, and at Tewkesbury May 4 1472 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p29] Most historians are today skeptical of the Eleanor Butler story [reported by Bishop Stillington to have had a pre-contract of marriage with Edward of York, later King Edward IV, thus bastardizing his children by Elizabeth Woodville?], chiefly because it was Richard III's SECOND attempt to establish the illegitimacy of Edward IV or his descendants. The first attempt, incredibly enough, was a claim that Edward himself had been illegitimate. This story probably rested ultimately upon the fact that Edward had been born outside England, in Rouen. There could, then, have been some doubts as to the circumstances of his conception and birth, as there had been with Richard II who had been born in Bordeaux, and who had against whom there had also been charges that his real father had not been the Black Prince but a "certain lady-faced priest" who was a member of Richard's mother's household. In Richard's case, his lack of close resemblance to the magnificent and warlike Black Prince made it easier for people to give some credit to these rumors. What defeated this first claim by Richard was, of course, that in order to establish Edward's illegitimate, Richard perforce had to claim or imply that his own mother, Cecily duchess of York, had committed adultery--and she was still alive in 1483! By some cosmic coincidence, moreover, Richard dined with Cecily in her London residence at Bayard's Castle on the evening of the day Richard's partisans had first advanced the claim of Edward's illegitimacy. Many historians have expressed the wish they had been a fly on the wall in the dining room that night. Whatever happened, the story was withdrawn the next day and the Eleanor Butler claim was then substituted for it. It is odd that given the clandestine circumstances of Edward IV's real marriage, to Elizabeth Woodville, Richard never tried to establish that it was unlawful, except to claim that it was doubtful because Edward had not consulted his barons about it, as a king should do. The only attempt to undermine the Woodville marriage was made through the claim that Edward had previously agreed to marry Lady Eleanor Butler, a daughter of the earl of Ormond in Ireland. There were plenty of Eleanor Butlers in the Ormond family, but nobody has ever succeeded in pointing to one of them as the woman to whom Edward was supposedly contracted. Nor has the text of such a marriage contract ever been discovered. When, in 1483, people began to ask if she couldn't be questioned about the matter, Richard's partisans explained that she had taken the veil after Edward abandoned her, and had subsequently died--very convenient, one must say. It's significant that no members of the Butler family were ever interrogated on the matter, nor did the Church ever issue any declaration that the Woodville marriage was invalid. [Ref: John Carmi Parsons SGM 10/13/1998-051345]
Note: Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: CP III p246, ES II #86, Paget HRHCharles p200, Paget HRHCharles p29, Paget HRHCharles p84, Watney WALLOP #9] 1442 [Ref: Louda RoyalFamEurope #4, Louda RoyalFamEurope #5, Thompson CharlesII #142] 28 Apr 1441 [Ref: Weis MC #161], place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p29, Weis MC #161], parents: [Ref: CMH p892, CP III p246, ES II #86, Louda RoyalFamEurope #4, Louda RoyalFamEurope #5, Paget HRHCharles p200, Paget HRHCharles p21, Paget HRHCharles p24, Paget HRHCharles p84, Thompson CharlesII #142, Wagner PedigreeProgress #47, Wagner PedigreeProgress #48, Wagner PedigreeProgress #49, Wagner PedigreeProgress #50, Watney WALLOP #9, Weis AR7 #225, Weis MC #161], father: [Ref: CP III p174, Louda RoyalFamEurope #1, Wagner PedigreeProgress #63], great-great-grandfather: Edward III King of England [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p176]
Note: Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: ES II #86, Paget HRHCharles p200, Paget HRHCharles p29, Paget HRHCharles p84, Watney WALLOP #9, Weis MC #161] 1483 [Ref: CMH p892, Louda RoyalFamEurope #4, Louda RoyalFamEurope #5, Thompson CharlesII #142, Wagner PedigreeProgress #47, Wagner PedigreeProgress #63], place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p29]
Note: Sources for this Information: place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p29]
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