Note: John, Duke of Burgundy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John%2C_Duke_of_Burgundy Duke John I, also known as Jean de Valois and Jean de Bourgogne (May 28, 1371 - September 10, 1419), also known as the Fearless (French: sans peur) was Duke of Burgundy from 1404 to 1419. Contents 1 Biography 1.1 Early life 1.2 Conflict against Louis of Orl�eans 1.3 Conflict with the Dauphin 2 Family 3 See also 4 External links 5 References Biography Early life Born in Dijon, John was the son of Philip II, the Bold and Margaret III, Countess of Flanders. As heir apparent, he used the title of Count of Nevers from 1384 to 1405, when after his accession he ceded it to his brother Philip. In 1385, John married Margaret of Bavaria, daughter of Albrecht of Bavaria, Count of Holland and Hainaut, to consolidate his position in the Low Countries, after cancelling his engagement with Catherine of Valois, daughter of king Charles V of France. Before his accession to the Duchy, John was one of the principal leaders of the French forces sent to aid King Sigismund of Hungary in his war against Sultan Bayezid I. John fought in the battle of Nicopolis (September 25, 1396) with such enthusiasm and bravery that he was given the nickname of Fearless (Sans-Peur). Nevertheless he was taken prisoner and released only in the next year, against an enormous ransom paid by his father. Conflict against Louis of Orl�eans John was invested as duke of Burgundy in 1404 and almost immediately entered into open conflict against Louis of Orl�eans, younger brother of the increasingly mad Charles VI. Both men attempted to fill the power vacuum left by the demented king. John played a game of marriages, exchanging his daughter Marguerite for Michelle of Valois, who would marry his heir Philip III. He did not overlook, however, the importance of the middle class of merchants and tradesman or the University of Paris. Louis tried to gain the favor of Queen Isabella, and may have become her lover. After a game of hide and seek in which his son-in-law, the Dauphin, was successively kidnapped and recovered by both parties, the Duke of Burgundy managed to gain appointment by royal decree - during one of the King's "absent" periods when mental illness manifested itself - as guardian of the Dauphin and the king's children. This did not improve the relations between John and Louis. Soon the two rivals descended into making open threats. Their uncle, John, Duke of Berry, secured a vow of solemn reconciliation, but three days later, on November 23, 1407 Louis was brutally assassinated in the streets of Paris. He was attacked after mounting his horse by a party of men who literally amputated his arms so that he was defenseless. The order, no one doubted, had come from the Duke of Burgundy, who shortly admitted to the deed and declared it to be a justifiable act of "tyrannicide". After an escape from Paris and a few skirmishes against the Orl�eans party, John managed to recover the king's favour. In the treaty of Chartres, signed on March 9, 1409, the king absolved the Duke of Burgundy of the crime, and he and Louis's son Charles pledged a reconciliation. A later edict renewed John's guardianship of the Dauphin. Even with the Orl�eans dispute resolved to his favour, John would not have an easy life. Charles of Orl�eans gathered allies, among them Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, to support his claims for the property that had been confiscated from him. Peace was solemnly sworn in 1410, and John returned to Burgundy, and Bernard remained in Paris and reportedly shared the queen's bed. Armagnac's party was not contented with political power, and, after a series of riots and attacks against the citizens, John was recalled to the capital. However, he was sent back to Burgundy in 1413. At this time king Henry V of England invaded French territory and threatened to attack Paris. John participated in the peace negotiations, but with dubious intent. Although he talked of helping his sovereign, his troops took no part in the Battle of Agincourt (in 1415), where two of his brothers, Antoine, Duke of Brabant, and Philip II, Count of Nevers, died fighting for France. Conflict with the Dauphin Two years later, John's troops set about the task of gaining Paris. On May 30, 1418, he captured the city, but not before the Dauphin, the future Charles VII of France, had escaped. John then installed himself in the city and made himself protector of the King. Although not an open ally of the English, John did nothing to prevent the surrender of Rouen in 1419. With the whole of northern France in English hands and Paris occupied by Burgundy, the Dauphin tried to bring about a reconciliation with John. They met in July and swore peace on the bridge of Pouilly, near Melun. On the grounds that peace was not sufficiently assured by the Pouilly meeting, a fresh interview was proposed by the Dauphin to take place on September 10, 1419 on the bridge at Montereau. John of Burgundy was present with his escort for what he considered a diplomatic meeting. He was, however, assassinated by the Dauphin's companions. He was later buried in Dijon. Family John and Margaret of Bavaria had the following children: Catherine (1391-1414, Ghent) Marie (1393 - October 30, 1463, Monterberg bei Kalkar). She married Adolph I, Duke of Cleves. They were the great-grandparents of Johann III, Duke of Cleves, father of Anne of Cleves who was fourth Queen consort of Henry VIII of England. Marguerite, duchess of Guyenne (1394 - February 2, 1441, Paris), married on August 30, 1404 Louis of Valois the Dauphin (heir of king Charles VI of France), then on October 10, 1422 Arthur de Richemont, the future Duke of Brittany Coat of Arms of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (1396-1467) Isabelle (d. September 18, 1412, Rouvre), married at Arras on July 22, 1406 to Olivier de Ch�atillon-Blois, Count of Penthi�evre and P�erigord Jeanne (b. 1399, Bouvres), d. young Anne of Burgundy (1404 - November 14, 1432, Paris), married John, Duke of Bedford Agnes of Burgundy (1407 - December 1, 1476, Ch�ateau de Moulins), married Charles I, Duke of Bourbon John also had several illegitimate children, including the colourful John of Burgundy, Bishop of Cambrai from 1439 to 1479. See also Dukes of Burgundy family tree Hundred Years' War Dukes of Burgundy Counts of Burgundy Preceded by: Philip I/II Count of Nevers 1384-1405 Succeeded by: Philip II Duke of Burgundy 1404-1419 Succeeded by: Philip III Preceded by: Margaret III Count of Artois, Flanders and Franche-Comte 1405-1419 External links John the Fearless: The Growth of Burgundian Power - reprint of a classic book by Burgundian historian Richard Vaughan. John the Fearless (Dijon, Burgundy) John the Fearless (Encyclopedia.com) John the Fearless (Columbia Encyclopedia) Jean sans Peur/John the Fearless Tour Jean-sans-Peur Jean sans Peur One of Jean-sans-Peur's rings References This article incorporates text from the Encyclop�dia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John%2C_Duke_of_Burgundy" BIBLIOGRAPHY: Cokayne, George Edward, Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant. Gloucester: A Sutton, 1982. Paget, Gerald, The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. London: Charles Skilton Ltd, 1977. Nypl ARF+ 78-835. Previte-Orton, C. W., The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge: University Press, 1952. Chatham 940.1PRE. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. I: Die Stammesherzoge, Die Weltlichenkurforsten, Die Kaiserlichen, Koniglichen und Grossherzoglichen Familien. Marburg: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1980. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. II: Die Ausserdeutschen Staaten Die Regierenden Hauser der Ubrigen Staaten Europas. Marburg: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1984. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. VI: Familien des Alten Lotharingien I. Marburg: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1978. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. XVIII: Zwischen Maas und Rhein. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1998. Tapsell, R. F., Monarchs, Rulers, Dynasties and Kingdoms of the World. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1983. Thompson, Neil D, and Hansen, Charles M, Medieval Heritage: The Ancestry of Charles II, King of England. Index and charts posted by Foundation for Medieval Genealogy at http://fmg.ac/Projects/CharlesII, 15 Nov 2005. RESEARCH NOTES: 14th Duke of Burgundy [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p207] Duke of Burgundy [Ref: CP II p72, Thompson CharlesII #446]
Note: Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: ES II #27] 1371 [Ref: Thompson CharlesII #446], place: [Ref: ES II #27], parents: [Ref: ES II #27, Paget HRHCharles p196, Thompson CharlesII #446], father: [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p207], mother: [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p198] Sources with Inaccurate Information: date: 28 Mar 1371 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p196, Paget HRHCharles p197]
Note: Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: ES II #27, Paget HRHCharles p196] 1419 [Ref: ES I #24, Tapsell Dynasties p207, Thompson CharlesII #446], place: [Ref: ES II #27]
Note: Sources for this Information: place: [Ref: ES II #27]
Note: Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: ES I #24, Paget HRHCharles p196] 12.IV, Dispens 3.IV 1385 [Ref: ES II #27 (with corr in III.1)], place: [Ref: ES II #27], names: [Ref: Thompson CharlesII #446], child: [Ref: CMH p1034, CP II p72, ES II #27, Paget HRHCharles p196, Paget HRHCharles p27, Thompson CharlesII #223, Thompson CharlesII #484, Thompson CharlesII #583]
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