Individual Page


Family
Marriage: Children:
  1. Edward Plantagenet: Birth: 1330 in Woodstock, England. Death: 8 Jul 1376 in Palace, Westminster

  2. Isabella Plantagenet: Birth: 16 Jun 1332 in Woodstock, England. Death: Bef 7 Oct 1382 in London, England

  3. Joan (Joanna) Plantagenet: Birth: Abt Feb 1335 in Woodstock, England. Death: 2 Sep 1348 in Bordeaux, , Bayonne, France

  4. Lionel "Of Antwerp" Plantagenet: Birth: 29 Nov 1338 in Antwerp, Belgium. Death: 17 Oct 1368 in Alba Pompeia, Cuneo, Piedmont, Italy

  5. John De Gaunt Plantagenet: Birth: 28 Mar 1340 in Ghent, Flanders, Belgium. Death: 3 Feb 1399 in Leicester Castle, Eng

  6. Blanche Plantagenet: Birth: Mar 1342 in Tower Of London, London, , England. Death: Mar 1342 in Tower Of London, London, , England

  7. Edmund Of Langley Plantagenet: Birth: 5 Jun 1344 in Kings Langley, Hertfodshire. Death: 1 Aug 1402 in Kings Langley, Hertfordshire

  8. Mary Plantagenet: Birth: Oct 1344 in Bishops Waltham, Hampshire, , England. Death: 1362 in Abingdon, Berkshire, England

  9. William Plantaganet: Birth: Abt 1345 in Windsor. Death: Sep 1348

  10. Margaret Plantagenet: Birth: 20 Jul 1346 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. Death: Aft 1 Oct 1361 in Sp

  11. Thomas Of Woodstock Plantagenet: Birth: 7 Jan 1354-1355 in Woodstock, England. Death: 8 Sep 1397 in Calais

  12. Person Not Viewable


Family
Marriage: Children:
  1. John Southerey: Birth: Abt 1364-1365 in , , , England.

  2. Joan (Queen Of England): Birth: Abt 1370 in , , , England.


Sources
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Name:   Cheryl Varner Library
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Addressname:   Cheryl Varner Library
Address:   Cheryl Varner Library Gray Court, SC
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Note:   Notification indicating people with descendancy from Geoffe
Publication:   Personal Usage
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Note continued:   ry Plantagenet (originator of the name, and father of King Henry II).
3. Title:   Grun, Bernard, <i>The Timetables of History</i> (Simon & Schuster, Inc., New York, 1982)
AddressaddressLine1:   Gray Court, SC
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4. Title:   Ancestor of ....
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Text:   Ancestor of
5. Title:   Roberts, Gary Boyd, <i>The Royal Descents of 500 Immigrants to the American Colonies or the United States</i> (Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, 1993)
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6. Title:   Ancestor of ....
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8. Title:   Ancestor of ....
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Text:   Ancestor of
9. Title:   Davies, John, <i>A History of Wales</i> (Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, London, 1993)
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10. Title:   Ancestor of ....
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Text:   Ancestor of
11. Title:   Ross, Charles, <i>The Wars of the Roses</i> (Thames and Hudson, New York, 1996)
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12. Title:   Ancestor of ....
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Text:   Ancestor of
13. Title:   Family Tree Maker, <i>World Family Tree Volume 7, pre-1600 to present</i> (Broderbund Software, Inc., 1996)
Page:   Ped 3931
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14. Title:   Ancestor of ....
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Text:   Ancestor of
15. Title:   Tabraham, Chris, <i>Bothwell Castle</i> (Historic Scotland, Edinburgh, 1996)
Page:   p. 8
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Name:   Cheryl Varner Library
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Address:   Cheryl Varner Library Gray Court, SC
16. Title:   Ancestor of ....
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Text:   Ancestor of
17. Title:   Miles, Rosalind, <i>I, Elizabeth</i>
18. Title:   Ancestor of ....
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Text:   Ancestor of
19. Title:   Port, Graham, <i>Scarborough Castle</i> (English Heritage, London, 1989)
Page:   p. 18
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20. Title:   Ancestor of ....
Page:   Val Kilmer
Text:   Ancestor of
21. Title:   GEDCOM file. Created on 29 Dec 2003. Imported on 8 Aug 2004.
22. Title:   Descendant of.....
Page:   Attila The Hun
Text:   Descendant of......
23. Title:   GEDCOM file. Created on Jan 12, 2008. Imported on 12 Jan 2008.
24. Title:   Ancestor of ....
Page:   Elvis Presly
Text:   Ancestor of
25. Title:   GEDCOM file submitted by Cathy Ann Abernathy, Rootsweb.com / weavercat@gmail.com. Created on 17 AUG 2009. Imported on 23 Sep 2009.
26. Title:   Ancestor of ....
Page:   Shirley Temple
Text:   Ancestor of
27. Title:   Ancestor of ....
Page:   Kenny Rogers
Text:   Ancestor of
28. Title:   Ancestor of ....
Page:   Anthony Perkins
Text:   Ancestor of
29. Title:   Ancestor of ....
Page:   Brad Pitt
Text:   Ancestor of
30. Title:   Ancestor of ....
Page:   Miley Cyrus
Text:   Ancestor of
31. Title:   Ancestor of ....
Page:   Halle Berry
Text:   Ancestor of
32. Title:   Ancestor of ....
Page:   Fred Gwynne
Text:   Ancestor of
33. Title:   Ancestor of ....
Page:   Vincent Price
Text:   Ancestor of
34. Title:   Descendant of.....
Page:   Charlemagne
Text:   Descendant of......
35. Title:   Ancestor of ....
Page:   Teri Hatcher
Text:   Ancestor of
36. Title:   Ancestor of ....
Page:   L. Ron Hubbard (Author)
Text:   Ancestor of
37. Title:   Ancestry of David A. Blocher (Maternal)
Author:   David A. Blocher (personal use) dblocher51@yahoo.com
38. Title:   Ancestry of David A. Blocher (Paternal)
Author:   David A. Blocher (personal use) dblocher51@yahoo.com
39. Title:   Ancestry of Jesse James (Outlaw)
Publication:   Personal Use
Author:   David A. Blocher (dblocher51@yahoo.com)
40. Title:   Ancestry of Meriwether Lewis (Explorer)
Note:   One half of the team of 'Lewis & Clark' that mapped out th
Note continued:   e Pacific Northwest.
41. Title:   Ancestor of ....
Page:   Hugh Beaumont
Text:   Ancestor of
42. Title:   [Ancestry of Mark Willis Ballard]
Page:   Paternal Lineage
Text:   Ancestry of Mark Willis Ballard
43. Title:   [Ancestry of Mark Willis Ballard]
Page:   Maternal Lineage
Text:   Ancestry of Mark Willis Ballard
44. Title:   [Ancestry of President Barack Obama]
Text:   Ancestry of President Barack Obama
45. Title:   [Ancestry of Benedict Arnold (Rev. Traitor)]
Text:   Ancestry of Benedict Arnold (Rev. Traitor)
46. Title:   Ancestry of Laura Ingles Wilder
47. Title:   Ancestry of Richard Gere
48. Title:   Ancestry of Fred Gwynne
Page:   Herman Munster of the TV Sitcom "The Munsters"
49. Title:   Ancestry of Linda Joyce Neely
Page:   Genealogy Colaborator
Publication:   Created for Personal use, no publication.
50. Title:   Ancestry of Dennis Eugene King
Page:   1st Cousin of David A. Blocher
51. Title:   Plantagenet Descent
52. Title:   Online Resource
Page:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_III_of_England
Note:   Online Resource.
53. Title:   Online Resource
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54. Title:   bushdev.FTW
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58. Title:   Online Resource
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59. Title:   GEDCOM file. Created on 14 Jan 1999. Imported on 14 Dec 2005.

Notes
a. Note:   NI160378
Note:   He was the King of England, reigned 1327-1377. Edward assumed effective power in 1330 after imprisoning his mother and executing her lover Roger de Mortimer who had murdered his father; therafter his reign was dominated by military adventures. His victory in Scotland, especially at Haildon Hill 1333 encouraged him to plan (1363) the union of England and Scotland. Through his mother he claimed the French throne thus starting (1337) the Hundred years war. His son John of Gaunt dominated the government during his last years. BIOGRAPHY: The fifty-year reign of Edward III was a dichotomy in Englis h development. Governmental reforms affirmed the power of the emerging mi ddle class in Parliament while placing the power of the nobility into th e hands a few. Chivalric code reached an apex in English society but onl y masked the greed and ambition of Edward and his barons. Social conditio ns were equally ambiguous: the export of raw wool (and later, the wool cl oth industry) prospered and spread wealth across the nation but was offse t by the devastation wrought by the Black Death. Early success in war ult imately failed to produce lasting results. Edward proved a most capable k ing in a time of great evolution in England. Edward's youth was spent in his mother's court and he was crowned at ag e fourteen after his father was deposed. After three years of dominatio n by his mother and her lover, Roger Mortimer, Edward instigated a palac e revolt in 1330 and assumed control of the government. Mortimer was exec uted and Isabella was exiled from court. Edward was married to Philippa o f Hainault in 1328 and the union produced many children; the 75% surviva l rate of their children - nine out of twelve lived through adulthood - w as incredible considering conditions of the day . War occupied the largest part of Edward's reign. He and Edward Baliol def eated David II of Scotland and drove David into exile in 1333. French coo peration with the Scots, French aggression in Gascony, and Edward's clai m to the disputed throne of France (through his mother, Isabella) led t o the first phase of the Hundred Years' war. The naval battle of Sluys (1 340) gave England control of the Channel, and battles at Crecy (1346) an d Calais (1347) established English supremacy on land. Hostilities cease d in the aftermath of the Black Death but war flared up again with an Eng lish invasion of France in 1355. Edward, the Black Prince and eldest so n of Edward III, trounced the French cavalry at Poitiers (1356) and captu red the French King John. In 1359, the Black Prince encircled Paris wit h his army and the defeated French negotiated for peace. The Treaty of Br etigny in 1360 ceded huge areas of northern and western France to Englis h sovereignty. Hostilities arose again in 1369 as English armies under th e king's third son, John of Gaunt, invaded France. English military stren gth, weakened considerably after the plague, gradually lost so much groun d that by 1375, Edward agreed to the Treaty of Bruges, leaving only the c oastal towns of Calais, Bordeaux, and Bayonne in English hands. The nature of English society transformed greatly during Edward's reign . Edward learned from the mistakes of his father and affected more cordia l relations with the nobility than any previous monarch. Feudalism dissip ated as mercantilism emerged: the nobility changed from a large body wit h relatively small holdings to a small body that held great lands and wea lth. Mercenary troops replaced feudal obligations as the means of gatheri ng armies. Taxation of exports and commerce overtook land-based taxes a s the primary form of financing government (and war). Wealth was accrue d by merchants as they and other middle class subjects appeared regularl y for parliamentary sessions. Parliament formally divided into two house s - the upper representing the nobility and high clergy with the lower re presenting the middle classes - and met regularly to finance Edward's war s and pass statutes. Treason was defined by statute for the first time (1 352), the office of Justice of the Peace was created to aid sheriffs (136 1), and English replaced French as the national language (1362) . Despite the king's early successes and England's general prosperity, muc h remained amiss in the realm. Edward and his nobles touted romantic chiv alry as their credo while plundering a devastated France; chivalry emphas ized the glory of war while reality stressed its costs. The influence o f the Church decreased but John Wycliff spearheaded an ecclesiastical ref orm movement that challenged church exploitation by both the king and th e pope. During 1348-1350, bubonic plague (the Black Death) ravaged the po pulations of Europe by as much as a fifty per cent. The flowering Englis h economy was struck hard by the ensuing rise in prices and wages. The fa iled military excursions of John of Gaunt into France caused excessive ta xation and eroded Edward's popular support . The last years of Edward's reign mirrored the first, in that a woman agai n dominated him. Philippa died in 1369 and Edward took the unscrupulous A lice Perrers as his mistress. With Edward in his dotage and the Black Pri nce ill, Perrers and William Latimer (the chamberlain of the household) d ominated the court with the support of John of Gaunt. Edward, the Black P rince, died in 1376 and the old king spent the last year of his life grie ving. Rafael Holinshed, in Chronicles of England, suggested that Edward b elieved the death of his son was a punishment for usurping his father's c rown: "But finally the thing that most grieved him, was the loss of tha t most noble gentleman, his dear son Prince Edward . . . But this and oth er mishaps that chanced to him now in his old years might seem to come t o pass for a revenge of his disobedience showed to his in usurping agains t him. . ." ------------------- Note: Edward's reign lasted 50 years. He was only 14 on his accession to the throne and the country was ruled by his mother Isabella and her lover Robert Mortimer. When he was 17 Edward took control and had Mortimer hanged and his mother imprisoned. He organised a professional army including trained long bow archers. In 1340 the English Navy beat the French thus winning control of the Channel and in 1346 he sailed with his son the Black Prince to start the 100 Years War in France. On Monday evening on 26 August 1346 he fought a French army three times the size of his at Crecy and the battle raged through the night into the next day. The French were annihilated and Edward followed this by laying siege to Calais and taking the town within 12 months. Gunpowder was used for the first time in this campaign but the real winner was the English long bow. At home, the Black Death raged and about 500,000 to 800,000 people died in England. On 19 Sept 1356 the Black Prince and his brother John of Gaunt slaughtered a French army twice their size at Poitiers. Under Edward, the House of Commons was developed as a means of raising taxes. Among institutions, justices of the peace were so titled in 1360, and Edward founded the Order of the Garter (1348). His parliaments were first divided into Lords and Commons (1332) and became fixed at Westminster, using English from 1362. ------------------ !Initiated the Hundred Years' War. Involved by his mother, Isabella of France in her intriques against his father. During Edward's minority, England was nominally ruled by a council of regency, but the actual power was in the hands of Isabella and her paramour, Roger de Mortimer. In 1330, Edward staged a palace coup and took the power into his own hands. He had Mortimer hanged and confined his mother to her home. [Funk & Wagnalls] !1332 - Edward Baliol crowned King of Scots, recognizes Edward II as overlord 1337 - Claims French crown, assumes title of King of France 1338 - Alliance of Coblenz between Louis IV and Edward III 1347 - Calais surrenders to him 1348 - Founds the Order of the Garter 1350 - Begins to rebuild Windsor Castle 1360 - Treaty of Calais between Edward III and Philp of Burgundy [Timetables of History] m. Philippa of Hainault; father of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York. [Royal Descents, p. 192] Sheen, 21 June 1377 -- Edward III died in the presence of his priest and his mistress, Alice Perrers, who robbed the corpse of his jewellery. It is said that Alice infected the king with gonorrhoea. Despite the scandal of his affair with Alice Perrers, Edward was liked and respected by his people for much of his reign. For 40 years he was married to the plump and homely Philippa of Hainault who bore him 12 children, 7 sons and 5 daughters, one of whom died of the plague. He was generally on good terms with the nobility, who enjoyed his glittering tournaments and were impressed by his creation of the Order of the Garter, whose members became "partners of the king in peace and war". But the revival of French power overshadowed Edward's earlier victories, and the decline of England's continental empire was blamed on Alice for seducing the king away from affairs of state and the glory of war. [Chronicle of the Royal Family, p. 85] Addressed parliament in English in 1362, the first time since 1066 for a king of England to use the language in public. [A History of Wales, p. 184] King of England from 1327-1377. Hailed as a kingly ideal of quasi-Arthurian proportions. His 50-year rule from 1327-77, however, saw the opening acts of the Hundred Years' War. Edward III's resplendent reign was a time of pomp and circumstance which saw a revival of chivalry and the creation of the Order of the Garter bearing the proud motto: Honi Soit Qui Mal y Pense (Shame on whoever thinks evil of this). But the Black Death of 1348-9 cast a dark shadow across the entire century. Bubonic plague decimated the population and destroyed forever the old social order. The resultant shortage of labour led to demands for higher wages and greater mobility. Attempts to keep the common people in their place met with an angry response. [Realm, May/June 1997 No. 74, p. 65-66] The archetypal Plantagenet king--tall, proud, majestic and handsome, with chiselled features and long hair and beard. Born in 1312, he was only 14 when his father, Edward II, was deposed and murdered, and 18 when he assumed personal control of the government of England. In 1328 Edward m. Philippa of Hainault, who bore him 13 children. His occasional infidelities did not affect this happy and successful marriage, which lasted 40 years. Edward had inherited the notorious Plantagenet temper, but the Queen exerted a restraining influence on him; in a famous incident in 1347, she successfully interceded with him for the lives of the doomed burghers of Calais, which Edward had captured after a long siege. [The Wars of the Roses, p. 21] The face of the wooden effigy carried at his funeral, which is still preserved in Westminster Abbey, is a death mask, and the effects of the stroke which killed the king may be seen in the drawn-down corner of the mouth. [Wars of the Roses, p. 22] Son of Edward II and Isabella; m. Philippa and was father of: 1. Edward who m. Joan 2. Isabella who m. Enguerrand VII 3. Joan 4. William 5. Lionel who m. Elizabeth de Burgh and Violante Visconti 6. John who m. Constance, Blanche and Catherine Roet 7. Edmund who m. Isabel and Joan de Holand 8. Blanche 9. Mary who m. John V 10. Margaret who m. John Hastings 11. William 12. Thomas who m. Eleanor Bohun [WFT vol 7 PEd 3931] His first step in asserting his rule, was to judicially murder Mortimer, his mother's lover, by plucking him out of his mother's bed, and then have him hanged through the Act of Attainder, and confining Isabella for the rest of her life. After his Queen died, Edward had a succession of mistresses and affairs and when he at last died of a terminal stroke, it was his mistress, Alice Perrers, who stripped him of his rings and ran away. [Edward III, 1327-1377 <http://www.camelotintl.com/heritage/edwii.html] Edward III made Bothwell Castle his headquarters from 18 Nov to 16 Dec 1336. During his stay he issued a number of important writs from the castle, including orders for the naval protection of the English coast, and a summons to Parliament to meet in London in order to coordinate the means for carrying on the war against the Scots and the French. [Bothwell Castle, p. 8] Edward III's ambitions lay more towards France than Scotland, and Scarborough Castle was attacked several times during the Hundred Years War because of its importance to the English wool trade. The great barbican was reconstructed around 1343, leaving the outline of the castle much as it is today. [Scarborough Castle, p. 18] In the South Ambulatory of Westminster Abbey is the tomb of Edward III with statues of six of the King's children. [Westminster Abbey, p. 15] Edward was tall, restless, energetic, a man of action, a fine warrior, but also a shrewd politician. Conventionally pious, he also had a darker side to his character, as the chronicler Jean le Bel's account of his brutal rape of the 'countess of Salisbury' suggests. In 1328 he married Philippa, daughter of William I, count of Hainault; she produced 12 children, nine of whom survived. After his death he was remembered with pride because of his victories over the French. [The Plantagenet Encyclopedia, p. 68] CREATED EARL OF CHESTER 1320; DUKE OF AQUITAINE 1325; ACCEDED 1/25/1327; (CROWNED WESTMINSTER) ; RULED FROM 1327-1377; MISTRESS ALICE PERRERS King of England 1327-1377. He started the 100 years war against France After Edward II was deposed by Isabellan and her lover Roger Mortimer, He married Phillippa and in 1330 he executed Mortimer. He attacked Scotland and won the Battle of Halidon Hill 1333. He captured Calais in 1337. When he died in 1377 his grandson Richard I became king. Coronation 2-1-1327Reigned 1327-1377. Edward assumed power in 1330 after imprisoning his mother and executing her lover Roger Mortimer who had murdered his father, Thereafter his reign was dominated by military adventures. His victory in Scotland, especially at Haildon Hill 1333 encouraged him to plan the union of England and Scotland. Through his mother he claimed French throne thus starting the Hundred year war. His son John of Gaunt dominated the government during his last years. Died of a stroke. Edward III of England - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: "Edward III (1312 - 1377) was one of the greatest English kings of medieval times. He was born at Windsor as the son of King Edward II of England and Isabella of France. Unfortunately, Edward II was a weak king and aroused ill-feeling by his dependence on favourites. The neglected queen, Isabella, and her lover, Roger Mortimer, imprisoned and murdered Edward II, taking up the reins of government themselves during the minority of the heir. As soon as Edward III reached the age of eighteen, he overthrew Mortimer and removed Isabella. He married Philippa of Hainault, and their eldest son, Edward the Black Prince, was an outstanding military leader. The reign of Edward III was marked by several important victories over France, including the battles of Crecy and Poitiers. Despite having an unusually happy marriage, Edward was a notorious womaniser. He founded an order of knighthood, the Order of the Garter, allegedly as a result of an incident when a lady, with whom he was dancing at a court ball, dropped an item of intimate apparel (probably a sanitary belt). Gallantly pretending it was a garter to assuage her embarrassment, Edward picked it up, tied it around his own leg, and remarked Honi soit qui mal y pense ('Shame on him who thinks evil of it'), which became the motto of the Order of the Garter. Edward died on June 21 1377 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. His son Edward, the Black Prince had pre-deceased him, and he was succeeded by his young grandson, King Richard II of England. The sons of Edward III The Wars of the Roses were a civil war among the descendants of King Edward III over the throne of England. Each branch of the family claimed to have a superior claim, because their ancestor was older, and/or because their claim was through a male line instead of a female one, and/or because their claim was through legitimate offspring instead of bastards. Edward III's eldest son was Edward, the Black Prince, whose only surviving child was Richard II who had no child, so once Richard was killed (and succeeded) by his cousin Henry IV, the senior line ceased to exist. Edward III's second son, William, died in 1337, aged about three, and is buried in York Minster. Edward III's third son was Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, whose heir was a female who married a Mortimer, then a Mortimer woman married a York man, so the Lionel/Mortimer line merged into the York line. Edward III's fourth son was John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. His legitimate heirs were the Lancasters: Henry IV who usurped the throne from his cousin Richard II; Henry V; and Henry VI who had the throne usurped from him by the first York king, Edward IV; Henry VI's only child was killed in the war, so the Lancaster line became defunct, too. John of Gaunt's illegitimate heirs were the Beauforts, until a Beaufort woman married a Tudor man, and they became the Tudors; after the real Lancasters were all dead, the Beauforts/Tudors claimed to be Lancasters and, therefore, senior to the Yorks, who were descended from a younger son than John. Edward III's fifth son was Edmund of Langley, Duke of York. His descendants were the Yorks, and once they merged with the Lionel/Mortimer line, they claimed to be senior to the Lancasters, who were descended from a younger son than Lionel, and to the Tudors, who were descended from bastards debarred from the throne. Edward's youngest son was Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, whose heir was a female who married a Stafford, and then the Staffords became the Dukes of Buckingham. Nobody ever considered them serious contenders for the crown, at least until Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, tried to take it from Richard III in 1483 and found out the hard way that no one else would support his claim -- he was executed for his effort." Edward III, byname EDWARD OF WINDSOR (b. Nov. 13, 1312, Windsor, Berkshire, Eng.--d. June 21, 1377, Sheen, Surrey), king of England from 1327 to 1377, who led England into the Hundred Years' War with France. The descendants of his seven sons and five daughters contested the throne for generations, climaxing in the Wars of the Roses (1455-85). Early years - The eldest son of Edward II and Isabella of France, Edward III was summoned to Parliament as earl of Chester (1320) and was made duke of Aquitaine (1325), but, contrary to tradition, he never received the title of prince of Wales. Edward III grew up amid struggles between his father and a number of barons who were attempting to limit the king's power and to strengthen their own role in governing England. His mother, repelled by her husband's treatment of the nobles and disaffected by the confiscation of her English estates by his supporters, played an important role in this conflict. In 1325 she left England to return to France to intervene in the dispute between her brother, Charles IV of France, and her husband over the latter's French possessions, Guyenne, Gascony, and Ponthieu. She was successful; the land was secured for England on condition that the English king pay homage to Charles. This was performed on the King's behalf by his young son. The heir apparent was secure at his mother's side. With Roger Mortimer, an influential baron who had escaped to France in 1323 and had become her lover, Isabella now began preparations to invade England to depose her husband. To raise funds for this enterprise, Edward III was betrothed to Philippa, daughter of William, count of Hainaut and Holland. Within five months of their invasion of England, the Queen and the nobles, who had much popular support, overpowered the King's forces. Edward II, charged with incompetence and breaking his coronation oath, was forced to resign, and on Jan. 29, 1327, Edward III, aged 15, was crowned king of England. During the next four years Isabella and Mortimer governed in his name, though nominally his guardian was Henry, earl of Lancaster. In the summer of 1327 he took part in an abortive campaign against the Scots, which resulted in the Treaty of Northampton (1328), making Scotland an independent realm. Edward was deeply troubled by the settlement and signed it only after much persuasion by Isabella and Mortimer. He married Philippa at York on Jan. 24, 1328. Soon afterward, Edward made a successful effort to throw off his degrading dependence on his mother and Mortimer. While a council was being held at Nottingham, he entered the castle by night, through a subterranean passage, took Mortimer prisoner, and had him executed (November 1330). Edward had discreetly ignored his mother's liaison with Mortimer and treated her with every respect, but her political influence was at an end. Edward III now began to rule as well as to reign. Young, ardent, and active, he sought to remake England into the powerful nation it had been under Edward I. He still resented the concession of independence made to Scotland by the Treaty of Northampton; and the death of Robert I, the Bruce, king of Scotland, in 1329 gave him a chance of retrieving his position. The new king of Scots, his brother-in-law, David II, was a mere boy, and Edward took advantage of his weakness to aid the Scottish barons who had been exiled by Bruce to place their leader, Edward Balliol, on the Scottish throne. David II fled to France, but Balliol was despised as a puppet of the English king, and David returned in 1341. Hundred Years' War - During the 1330s England gradually drifted into a state of hostility with France, for which the most obvious reason was the dispute over English rule in Gascony. Contributory causes were France's new king Philip VI's support of the Scots, Edward's alliance with the Flemish cities--then on bad terms with their French overlord--and the revival, in 1337, of Edward's claim, first made in 1328, to the French crown. Edward twice attempted to invade France from the north (1339, 1340), but the only result of his campaigns was to reduce him to bankruptcy. In January 1340 he assumed the title of king of France. At first he may have done this to gratify the Flemings, whose scruples in fighting the French king disappeared when they persuaded themselves that Edward was the rightful king of France. But his pretensions to the French crown gradually became more important, and the persistence with which he and his successors urged them made stable peace impossible for more than a century. This was the struggle famous in history as the Hundred Years' War. Until 1801 every English king also called himself king of France. Edward was present in person at the great naval battle off the Flemish city of Sluis in June 1340, in which he all but destroyed the French navy. Despite this victory his resources were exhausted by his land campaign, and he was forced to make a truce (which was broken two years later) and return to England. During the years after 1342 he spent much time and money in rebuilding Windsor Castle and instituting the Order of the Garter, which became Britain's highest order of knighthood. A new phase of the French war began when Edward landed in Normandy in July 1346, accompanied by his eldest son, Prince Edward, later known as the Black Prince (born 1330). At first the King showed some lack of strategic purpose, engaging in little more than a large-scale plundering raid to the gates of Paris. The campaign was made memorable by his decisive victory over the French at Cr�ecy in Ponthieu (August 26), where he scattered the army with which Philip VI sought to cut off his retreat to the northeast. Edward laid siege to the French port of Calais in September 1346 and received its surrender in August 1347. Other victories in Gascony and Brittany, and the defeat and capture of David II at Neville's Cross near Durham (October 1346), gave further proof of Edward's power, but Calais was to be his only lasting conquest. He ejected most of its French inhabitants, colonizing the town with Englishmen and establishing there a base from which to conduct further invasions of France. Nevertheless, in the midst of his successes, want of money forced him to make a new truce in September 1347. Edward returned to England in October 1347. He celebrated his triumph by a series of splendid tournaments. In 1348 he rejected an offer to become Holy Roman emperor. In the same year the bubonic plague known as the Black Death first appeared in England and raged until the end of 1349. Its horrors hardly checked the magnificent revels of Edward's court, and neither the plague nor the truce stayed the slow course of the French war, though the fighting was indecisive and on a small scale. Edward's martial exploits during the next years were those of a gallant knight rather than of a responsible general. Although the English House of Commons was now weary of the war, efforts to make peace came to nothing, and large-scale operations began again in 1355, when Edward led an unsuccessful raid out of Calais. He harried the Lothians, part of southeastern Scotland, in the expedition famous as the Burned Candlemas (January and February 1356), and in the same year he received a formal surrender of the Kingdom of Scotland from Balliol. His exploits were, however, eclipsed by those of his son Edward, whose victory at Poitiers (Sept. 19, 1356), resulting in the capture of the French king, John II (who had succeeded Philip VI in 1350), forced the French to accept a new truce. Edward entertained his captive magnificently but forced him by the Treaty of London (1359) to surrender so much territory that the agreement was repudiated in France. In an effort to compel acceptance, Edward landed at Calais (October 28) and besieged Reims, where he planned to be crowned king of France. The strenuous resistance of the citizens frustrated this scheme, and Edward marched into Burgundy, eventually returning toward Paris. After this unsuccessful campaign he was glad to conclude preliminaries of peace at Brittany (May 8, 1360). This treaty, less onerous to France than that of London, took its final form in the Treaty of Calais, ratified by both kings (October 1360). By it, Edward renounced his claim to the French crown in return for the whole of Aquitaine, a rich area in southwestern France. The years of decline: 1360-77 - The Treaty of Calais did not bring rest or prosperity to either England or France. Fresh visitations of the Black Death in England in 1361 and 1369 intensified social and economic disturbances, and desperate but not very successful efforts were made to enforce the Statute of Labourers (1351), which was intended to maintain prices and wages as they had been before the pestilence. Other famous laws enacted during the 1350s had been the Statutes of Provisors (1351) and Praemunire (1353), which reflected popular hostility against foreign clergy. These measures were frequently reenacted, and Edward formally repudiated (1366) the feudal supremacy over England still claimed by the papacy. When the French king Charles V, son of John II, repudiated the Treaty of Calais, Edward resumed the title of king of France, but he showed little of his former vigour in meeting this new trouble, leaving most of the fighting and the administration of his foreign territories to his sons Edward and John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. While they were struggling with little success against the rising tide of French national feeling, Edward's want of money made him a willing participant in the attack on the wealth and privileges of the church. Meanwhile, Aquitaine was gradually lost, Prince Edward returned to England in broken health (1371), and John of Gaunt's march through France from Calais to Bordeaux (1373) achieved nothing. Edward's final attempt to lead an army abroad himself (1372) was frustrated when contrary winds prevented his landing his troops in France. In 1375 he was glad to make a truce, which lasted until his death. By it, the only important possessions remaining in English hands were Calais, Bordeaux, Bayonne, and Brest. Edward was now sinking into his dotage. After the death of Queen Philippa in 1369 he fell entirely under the influence of his greedy mistress, Alice Perrers, while Prince Edward and John of Gaunt became the leaders of sharply divided parties in the royal court and council. John of Gaunt returned to England in April 1374 and with the help of Alice Perrers obtained the chief influence with his father, but his administration was neither honourable nor successful. At the famous so-called Good Parliament of 1376 popular indignation against John of Gaunt's ruling party came at last to a head. Alice Perrers was removed and some of Gaunt's followers were impeached. Before the Parliament had concluded its business, however, the death of Prince Edward (June 8, 1376) robbed the Commons of its strongest support. John of Gaunt regained power, and the acts of the Good Parliament had been reversed when Edward III died. Edward's character - Edward III possessed extraordinary vigour and energy of temperament; he was an admirable tactician and a consummate knight. His court was the most brilliant in contemporary Europe, and he was himself well fitted to be the head of the gallant knights who obtained fame in the French wars. Though his main ambition was military glory, he was not a bad ruler of England, being liberal, kindly, good-tempered, and easy of access. His need to obtain supplies for carrying on the French wars made him favourable to his subjects' petitions and contributed to the growing strength of Parliament. His weak points were his wanton breaches of good faith, his extravagance, his frivolity, and his self-indulgence. His ambition ultimately transcended his resources, and before he died even his subjects had sensed his failure. [Encyclop�dia Britannica CD '97, EDWARD III] RESEARCH NOTES: King of England [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p176, Weis AR7 #1, CP III p171, Paget HRHCharles p20, Burke Peerage-10 p27] King of France [Ref: Louda RoyalFamEurope #65] 1st Earl of Chester, of Earldom cr 1312? [Ref: CP III p171] claimant to the French throne [Ref: CMH p780] proclaimed King Jan 25 1327, crowned Feb 1 1328 [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p27] 1327-1377: King of England [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p176, Weis AR7 #1] succeeded his father as from Jan 24 1327, and was crowned Feb 1 1327. he claimed the throne of France in right of his mother [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p20] 1340: King of France [Ref: Louda RoyalFamEurope #65]
b. Note:   BI160378
Note:   Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: CP III p171, ES II #84, Paget HRHCharles p194, Paget HRHCharles p20, Paget HRHCharles p73, Redlich CharlemagneDesc p64, Watney WALLOP #408, Watney WALLOP #9, Weis AR7 #1] 1312 [Ref: Louda RoyalFamEurope #3, Moriarty Plantagenet p2], place: [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p27, CP III p171, D. Spencer Hines SGM 4/26/1997-090151, Paget HRHCharles p20, Weis AR7 #1], parents: [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p27, CMH p600, CMH p780, CMH p892, CP III p171, ES II #84, Louda RoyalFamEurope #3, Moriarty Plantagenet p2, Paget HRHCharles p194, Paget HRHCharles p20, Paget HRHCharles p73, Redlich CharlemagneDesc p64, Watney WALLOP #9, Weis AR7 #1], father: [Ref: Louda RoyalFamEurope #1, Tapsell Dynasties p176, Wagner PedigreeProgress #3, Wagner PedigreeProgress #47]
c. Note:   DI160378
Note:   He died of a Stroke.
d. Note:   XI160378
Note:   Sources for this Information: place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p26]


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