Title: Bram, Leon L. V.P. and Ed. Dir.; Dickey, Norma H. Editor-in-Chief, <i>Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia</i> (Funk & Wagnalls, Inc., 1986)
Title: Avent, Richard, <i>Criccieth Castle</i> (Cadw Welsh Historic Monuments, 1989)
Page: p. 7
Title: Ross, Charles, <i>The Wars of the Roses</i> (Thames and Hudson, New York, 1996)
Page: p. 23
Title: Family Tree Maker, <i>World Family Tree Volume 7, pre-1600 to present</i> (Broderbund Software, Inc., 1996)
Page: Ped 3931
Title: Miles, Rosalind, <i>I, Elizabeth</i>
Title: Brown, R. Allen, <i>Castle Rising</i> (English Heritage, London, 1996)
Page: p. 19
Title: GEDCOM file. Created on 29 Dec 2003. Imported on 8 Aug 2004.
Title: GEDCOM file. Created on Jan 12, 2008. Imported on 12 Jan 2008.
Title: GEDCOM file submitted by Cathy Ann Abernathy, Rootsweb.com / email@example.com. Created on 17 AUG 2009. Imported on 23 Sep 2009.
Title: Family Tree Maker, <i>World Family Tree European Origins, Volume E1</i> (Broderbund Software, Inc., 1997)
Page: Ped 672
Note: !Called the Black Prince because of the black armor he wore. Distinguished himself in battle at the age of 16 in the Battle of Crecy. In 1355 was lieutenant in Gascony. Led the English army in a series of raids across southern France and in 1356 defeated a French army at Poitiers, took King John II of France prisoner, and returned in triumph to England with his captive. Was named prince of Aquitaine and Gascony in 1362 which made him a vassal of the French king. During the last years of his life he was a leader of the political faction that rebelled against the misrule of his younger brother, John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. [Funk & Wagnalls] In abt 1359 the Black Prince appointed Sir Hywel ap Gruffudd as Criccieth's first Welsh constable. [Criccieth Castle, p. 7] His exploits earned the reputation of being the finest knight in Christendom. His nickname, "the Black Prince", may have been inspired by the color of his armour or, more probably, the ferocity of his temper. In later years, dogged by ill-health, he tarnished his fame by ordering the notorious massacre of innocent citizens at Limoges. He predeceased his father in 1376, leaving one heir, 9-year-old Richard of Bordeaux, who succeeded his grandfather in 1377 as Richard II. [Wars of the Roses, p. 23] Son of Edward III and Philipa; m. Joan. [WFT vol 7 Ped 3931] The title of duke was first bestowed upon Edward prince of Wales, commonly called the Black Prince, who was created by his father King Edward III 13 March 1337, duke of the county of Cornwal, with remainder to the eldest sons of the kings of England for ever. [Extince Peerage - Dukes, http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/History/Barons/ExtinctDukes.html] In 1337, by charter dated 1 October and enrolled upon the Charter Rolls, and following the death of John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall and the first reversioner, the previous year, Edward III, as King and residuary legatee, had altered the terms of the original Montalt conveyance 10 years before, and granted the castle and manor of Rising, with its valuable appurtenance of one quarter of the tollbooth of Lynn, to Edward his eldest son, new created Duke of Cornwall, to take effect after the death of Isabella. The charter is entirely explicit that Castle Rising is thus to be attached to the Duchy of Cornwall in perpetuity, and not to be alienated, reverting to the Crown, like the Duchy itself, only in the temporary circumstances of the absence of a son and heir to the reigning monarch. In 1358, therefore, the Black Prince, aged 28, entered into possession of Castle Rising -- or rather, added it to his vast possessions -- and retained it until his untimely death in 1376. [Castle Rising, p. 19] -------------------------- PRINCE OF AQUITAINE; DUKE OF CORNWALL; KG; CREATED 2ND PRINCE OF WALES 1343; KNOWN AS THE "BLACK PRINCE""OF WOODSTOCK" Edward, the Black Prince - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: "Born at Woodstock on June 15,1330, Edward, the Black Prince was the eldest son of King Edward III of England. He was created Prince of Wales in 1343, and proved to have a prodigious military talent, as shown by his victory at the Battle of Crecy at the age of only sixteen. He followed this up a few years later with victory at the Battle of Poitiers, gaining the nickname of "Black Prince" from the colour of his armour. It was largely thanks to him that Welsh archers were imported into the English army, and the English owed much of their subsequent military success to the supremacy of the longbow over the continental crossbow. After marrying his cousin, Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent", Edward was sent to rule the province of Aquitaine on behalf of his father. In this period, he had two sons, Edward (who died in infancy) and Richard, who would later rule as Richard II of England. Further military campaigning ruined Edward's health, and he was forced to give up the administraion of Aquitaine and return to England, where he died on June 8, 1376, leaving his young son as heir to the throne. He is buried at Canterbury Cathedral." Edward THE BLACK PRINCE, also called EDWARD OF WOODSTOCK, PRINCE D'AQUITAINE, PRINCE OF WALES, DUKE OF CORNWALL, EARL OF CHESTER (b. June 15, 1330, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, Eng.--d. June 8, 1376, Westminster, near London), son and heir apparent of Edward III of England and one of the outstanding commanders during the Hundred Years' War, winning his major victory at the Battle of Poitiers (1356). His sobriquet, said to have come from his wearing black armour, has no contemporary justification and is found first in Richard Grafton's Chronicle of England (1568). Edward was created Earl of Chester (March 1333), Duke of Cornwall (February 1337)--the first appearance of this rank in England--and Prince of Wales (May 1343); he was Prince of Aquitaine from 1362 to 1372. His first campaign was served under his father in northern France (1346-47), and at the Battle of Cr�ecy (Aug. 26, 1346) he won both his spurs and the famous ostrich plumes and with them the mottoes used by himself and subsequent princes of Wales, homout; ich dene ("Courage; I serve"; the words are here spelled as Edward himself wrote them; later variants include houmout and ich dien or ich diene). One of the original Knights of the Garter, he was sent to France with independent command in 1355, winning his most famous victory over the French at Poitiers on Sept. 19, 1356. The French king John II, brought captive to England, was treated by the prince with a celebrated courtesy, but he was obligated to pay a ransom of 3,000,000 gold crowns and to negotiate the treaties of Br�etigny and Calais (1360) by which Aquitaine was ceded to the English. Edward married his cousin Joan, the divorced and widowed Countess of Kent, in October 1361. He was created Prince of Aquitaine in July 1362 and left England in 1363 to take up his duties. His powers and his opportunities were great, but his rule was a failure, and he himself was largely to blame. His court at Bordeaux, that of a foreign conqueror, was extravagant; the 13 s�en�echauss�ees into which the principality was divided administratively followed their earlier French pattern and allowed local French loyalties to subsist; his relations with the many bishops were unfriendly, while the greater nobles, Arnaud-Amanieu, sire d'Albret, Gaston II, Count de Foix, and Jean I, Count d'Armagnac, were hostile. He summoned several estates, or parliaments, but always to levy taxes. In 1367 he undertook to restore Peter the Cruel of Castile to his throne, and though he won a classic victory at N�ajera on April 3, 1367, the campaign ruined his health, his finances, and any prospect of sound rule in Aquitaine, where, in 1368, the nobles and prelates appealed against him to Charles V of France as suzerain. Edward's reply to the French king's citation to answer the appellants before the parlement of Paris in May 1369 is well known--he would appear with 60,000 men at his back. He had, however, alienated the towns and peasantry as well as the nobles; and by March 1369 more than 900 towns, castles, and strong places had declared against him. Relying on mercenaries whom he could not afford to pay, he was powerless to quell the revolt, and the terrible sack of Limoges (October 1370) merely redounded to his discredit. He returned to England a sick and broken man in January 1371 and formally surrendered his principality to his father in October 1372, alleging that the revenues of the country were insufficient to defray his expenses. He had no successor as Prince of Aquitaine. Edward's position in England, where, throughout his life, he was heir apparent, was that of a typical 14th-century magnate. The registers of his household from 1346 to 1348 and from 1351 to 1365 have survived and add to what is known of him from the chroniclers and from his biographer, the herald of Sir John Chandos. In one important respect all of these sources paint the same picture, that of a man constantly living beyond his means. His generosity, however, extended to his tenants as well as to his knightly companions, and faithful service was rewarded, as in 1356 when the ferry of Saltash was granted to William Lenche, who had lost an eye at Poitiers. The prince visited Chester in 1353 and again in 1358. Cheshire furnished many of his archers, who wore a rudimentary uniform of a short coat and hat of green and white cloth with the green on the right. Despite his title, however, Edward did not visit Wales. He appears to have shared the interests of his class--jousting, falconry, hunting, gaming. He was literate and conventionally pious, substantially endowing a religious house at Ashridge (1376). He had the customary fine presence of the Plantagenets and shared their love of jewels. The Black Prince's ruby in the present imperial state crown may or may not have been given to him by King Peter of Castile after the Battle of N�ajera, but he would certainly have prized it, as a connoisseur. Similar artistic interest is shown in his seals, adorned with their ostrich feathers, and in the elegant gold coins that he issued as Prince of Aquitaine. The last five years of the prince's life are obscure. Some contemporaries suggest that he supported the Commons when political discontent culminated in the Good Parliament of April 1376; but he knew he was dying, and he was probably seeking the best means to ensure the succession of his second--but only surviving--son, Richard of Bordeaux (afterward Richard II). Edward was buried at Canterbury, where his tomb with his accoutrements, restored and renovated, still stands. [Encyclopaedia Britannica CD, 1996, EDWARD, THE BLACK PRINCE] RESEARCH NOTES: Prince of Wales [Ref: CP I p183, Paget HRHCharles p20, Paget HRHCharles p75] 1st Prince of Aquitaine, cr 1362 [Ref: CP I p182] 1st Duke of Cornwall, of Dukedom cr 1337 [Ref: CP III p435] Duke of Cornwall [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p20] 1st Earl of Chester, of Earldom cr 1333 [Ref: CP III p172] Earl of Chester [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p20] 1337: received grant of castle and manor of Trematon [Ref: Sanders Baronies p91] 7 Sep 1361: had papal disp to marry Joan, she being first cousin to his father; a clandestine marriage had taken place earlier [Ref: CP III p436 (with corr in XIV p208)] Jul 19 1362: by charter cr Prince of Aquitaine [Ref: CP I p183] Aquitaine was erected into a Principality in 1362, for Edward, Duke of Cornwall, 1st son and heir apparent of Edward III, but was confiscared by the King of France, by act dated 14 May 1370. The province was reconquered by Henry V in 1418, but finally lost by his successor [Ref: CP I p183(b)] Feb 24 1367/8: summoned to Parliament as Prince of Aquitaine and Wales [Ref: CP I p183] d.v.p [Ref: CP I p183]
Note: Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p27, CP III p172, CP III p435, ES II #84, Paget HRHCharles p20] 13 Jun 1330 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p75] 1330 [Ref: Louda RoyalFamEurope #3] first son [Ref: CP I p183], place: [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p27, CP III p172, CP III p435, Paget HRHCharles p20], parents: [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p27, CMH p892, CP I p183, CP III p435, ES II #84, Louda RoyalFamEurope #3, Paget HRHCharles p20, Paget HRHCharles p75], father: [Ref: CP III p172, Louda RoyalFamEurope #1]
Note: Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p27, CP I p183, CP III p172, CP III p437, ES II #84, Paget HRHCharles p20] 1376 [Ref: CMH p892, Louda RoyalFamEurope #3] 9 Jun 1376 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p75], place: [Ref: CP III p437, Paget HRHCharles p20]
Note: Sources for this Information: place: [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p27, CP III p437, Paget HRHCharles p20]
Note: Originally this source stated that they were not married, even though a date and place of marriage was provided. This is a very confusing situation!
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