Individual Page


Family
Marriage: Children:
  1. dgyth (Edith) Of Wessex: Birth: 893 in Wessex, England. Death: 15 Jul 937 in Magdeburg, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany

  2. Athelstan De Wessex: Birth: 894 in Wessex, England. Death: 27 Oct 939 in Gloucester, England

  3. Person Not Viewable


Family
Marriage: Children:
  1. Aethelflaeda : Birth: Abt 901.

  2. Eadgifu Aedgifu Edgina De Wessex: Birth: 904 in Winchester, Wessex. Death: Abt 951 in Soissons, Picardie, Aisne, France

  3. lfweard : Birth: Abt 905. Death: 2 Aug 924 in Oxford

  4. Edwin De Wessex: Birth: Abt 906. Death: 933 in English Channel

  5. thelhild De Wessex: Birth: Abt 910.

  6. Eadhild Edhilda De Wessex: Birth: 912. Death: 14 Sep 937

  7. Eadgyth : Birth: Abt 913.

  8. Aelfgifu Elgiva Wessex: Birth: Abt 915 in Winchester, Wessex. Death: 15 Jul 967


Family
Marriage: Children:
  1. Edmund De Wessex: Birth: 921 in Wessex, England. Death: 26 May 946 in Pucklechurch, England

  2. Eadburgha : Birth: Abt 922.

  3. Eadred De Wessex: Birth: 924 in Wessex, England. Death: 23 Nov 955 in Frome, Somerset, England

  4. Edgifu (Edgiva) De Wessex: Birth: Abt 925.


Sources
1. Title:   "My Childrens Tree," supplied by Dent, 22-2-2009.
Text:   CAUTION: Not all facts within have been documented! Please, do not take all of them, as so! Documentation is being added continously!! Please contact me with any questions! chipmunk@bright.net Comments, corrections, and additions welcome!
Author:   compiled by Michelle Dent [(E-ADDRESS) FOR PRIVATE USE\,]
Name:   n/a
Givenname:   n
Surname:   a
RepositoryId:   R294
Addressname:   n/a
Address:   n/a
2. Title:   Directory of Royal Genealogical Data
Publication:   http://www.dcs.hull.ac.uk/public/genealogy/royal/
Author:   Brian Tompsett, Dept of Computer Science, University of Hull, Hull UK HU6 7RX
3. Title:   garynlewis1144.ged
Note:   garynlewis1144.ged, Source Medium: Other .
4. Title:   The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarcy
Publication:   Oxford University Press, 1998, 2000 ISBN 0-19-289328-9
Author:   John Cannon & Ralph Griffiths
5. Title:   G1209.ftw
Note:   G1209.ftw, Source Medium: Other .
6. Title:   Ancestral Roots of Sixty Colonists Who Came to New England between 1623 and 1650
Publication:   Sixth Edition Genealogical Publishing, Inc. 1988 ISBN 0-8063-1207-6
Author:   Frederick Lewis Weis
7. Title:   Who's Buried Where in England
Publication:   (London, Constable, 1999), 3rd edition
Author:   Douglas Greenwood
8. Title:   brucedjohnson.ged
Note:   brucedjohnson.ged, Source Medium: Other .
9. Title:   feonadorf.ged
Note:   feonadorf.ged, ABBR feonadorf.ged.
10. Title:   Direct Linage1.FTW
Note:   Direct Linage1.FTW, ABBR Direct Linage1.FTW.
11. Title:   Sergent.ged
Note:   Sergent.ged, ABBR Sergent.ged.
12. Title:   Sergent2.ged
Note:   Sergent2.ged, ABBR Sergent2.ged.
13. Title:   Sargent.FTW
Note:   Sargent.FTW, Source Medium: Other .
14. Title:   3173266.ged
Note:   3173266.ged, Source Medium: Other .

Notes
a. Note:   NI135909
Note:   King Of England(899-924) SLAIN IN BATTLE AGAINST HIS BROTHER Edward the Elder (Old English: �A'adweard se Ieldra) (c. 870 � 17 July 924) was King of England (899 � 924). He was the son of Alfred the Great (�lfr�A"d se Gr�A"ata) and Alfred's wife, Ealhswith, and became King upon his father's death in 899. Three marriages: A: Ecgwynn - three children 1. �lfred 2. �thelstan, King of Wessex 3. Eadgyth, married Sithric, King of York B: �lffl�d �thelhelmsdottir of Wiltshire, eight (nine) children: 4. �dfletha 5. (?) �thelfletha 6. Eadgifu, married Charles III and Herbert 7. �lfweard 8. Eadwine 9. �thelhild 10. Eadhild, married Hugues Capet 11. Eadgyth, married Otto von Germania 12. �lfgifu, wrongly assumed married to Boleslaw C: Eadgifu daughter of Sigehelm of Kent four children: 13. Edmund the Magnificent 14. Eadburgha 15. Eadgifu, married Ludwig Graf im Thurgau 16. Eadred http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#SihtricYorkdied927 ---------------------------- (Wikipedia article cont.) He was king at a time when the Kingdom of Wessex was becoming transformed into the Kingdom of England. The title he normally used was "King of the Anglo-Saxons"; most authorities do regard him as a king of England, although the territory he ruled over was significantly smaller than the present borders of England. Of the five children born to Alfred and Eahlswith who survived infancy, Edward was the second-born and the elder son. Edward's name was a new one among the West Saxon ruling family. His siblings were named for their father and other previous kings, but Edward was perhaps named for his maternal grandmother Eadburh, of Mercian origin and possibly a kinswoman of Mercian kings Coenwulf and Ceolwulf. Edward's birth cannot be certainly dated. His parents married in 868 and his eldest sibling �thelfl�d was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877. Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister �lfthryth. His second sister, �thelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, �thelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and �lfthryth, however, while they learned Old English, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility". The first appearance of Edward, called filius regis, the king's son in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman �thelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son. Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins �thelwold and �thelhelm, sons of �thelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. �thelwold and �thelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. �thelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows �thelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status. As well as his greater age and experience, �thelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Eahlswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, �thelwold and �thelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen. When Alfred died, Edward's cousin Aethelwold, the son of King Ethelred of Wessex, rose up to claim the throne and began �thelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but Aethelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, Aethelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900 In 901, Aethelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year, he attacked Cricklade and Braydon. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides met at the Battle of Holme. Aethelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle. Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle. In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians retaliated by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the River Humber. Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick. Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, Ethelfleda (��elfl�C�d). Ethelfleda's daughter, �lfwynn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord". This recognition of Edward's overlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom. Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities. He died leading an army against a Welsh-Mercian rebellion, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Norman Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park. The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxon monarchs by an unknown artist in the 18th century. Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan's Life of St �thelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr. Edward had four siblings, including Ethelfleda, Queen of the Mercians and �lfthryth, Countess of Flanders. King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, and may have had illegitimate children too. Edward married (although the exact status of the union is uncertain) a young woman of low birth called Ecgwynn around 893, and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric, King of Dublin and York in 926. Nothing is known about Ecgwynn other than her name, which was not even recorded until after the Conquest. When he became king in 899, Edward set Ecgwynn aside and married �lffl�d, a daughter of �thelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire. Their son �lfweard may have briefly succeeded his father, but died just over two weeks later and the two were buried together. Edward and �lffl�d had six daughters: Eadgyth who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor; Edgiva aka Edgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; �lfgifu who married "a prince near the Alps", sometimes identified with Conrad of Burgundy or Boleslaus II of Bohemia; and two nuns Eadfl�d and Eadhild. A son, Edwin �theling who drowned in 933 was possibly �lffl�d's child, but that is not clear. Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Edgiva, aka Eadgifu, the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Edred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married Louis l'Aveugle. Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Aelffaed, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim. -------------------- Edward's succession to his father was not assured. When Alfred died, Edward's cousin <u>Aethelwold </u>, the son of King <u>Aethelred I </u>, rose up to claim the throne and began <u>�thelwold's Revolt </u>. He seized <u>Wimborne </u>, in <u>Dorset </u>, where his father was buried, and <u>Christchurch </u> (then in <u>Hampshire</u>, now in Dorset). Edward marched to <u>Badbury </u> and offered battle, but Aethelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, Aethelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in <u>Northumbria</u>, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at <u>Kingston upon Thames </u> on <u>8 June</u> <u>900 . </u> In <u>901 </u>, Aethelwold came with a fleet to <u>Essex </u>, and encouraged the Danes in <u>East Anglia</u> to rise up. In the following year, he attacked <u>Cricklade</u> and <u>Braydon </u>. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides met at the <u>Battle of Holme </u>. Aethelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle. Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The <i><u>Anglo-Saxon Chronicle </i></u>mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of <u>Chester </u> in <u>907 </u>, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.<u> In </u> <u>909 </u>, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians returned the favour by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the <u>Battle of Tettenhall </u>, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the <u>Humber River </u>. Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (<i>burhs</i>), at <u>Hertford</u>, <u>Witham</u> and <u>Bridgnorth </u>. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at <u>Tamworth </u>, <u>Stafford </u>, <u>Eddisbury </u> and <u>Warwick </u>Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of <u>Mercia </u>, <u>East Anglia</u> and <u>Essex</u>, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in <u>918 </u>, after the death of his sister, <u>Ethelfleda</u>. Ethelfleda's daughter, Aelfwinn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of <u>London </u> and <u>Oxford </u> and the surrounding lands of <u>Oxfordshire </u> and <u>Middlesex </u>in <u>911</u>. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord". This recognition of Edward's overlordship in <u>Scotland </u> led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom. Edward reorganized the <u>Church </u> in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at <u>Ramsbury and Sonning </u>, <u>Wells</u> and <u>Crediton</u>. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities. He died leading an army against a Cambro-Mercian rebellion, on <u>17 July</u> <u>924</u> at <u>Farndon-Upon-Dee Cheshire</u> and was buried in the <u>New Minster</u> in <u>Winchester </u>, <u>Hampshire </u>, which he himself had established in <u>901 </u>. After the <u>Conquest </u>, the minster was replaced by <u>Hyde Abbey</u> to the north of the city and King Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park. The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other <u>Anglo-Saxon </u> monarchs by an unknown artist in the <u>18th century</u>. Edward's eponym <i>the Elder</i> was first used in the <u>10th century </u>, in <u>Wulfstan</u>'s <i>Life of St �thelwold</i>, to distinguish him from the later King <u>Edward the Martyr </u>. CORONATION NOTES This is believed to be the first ceremony wherea formal crown was used instead of a ceremonial helmet. Edward I is sometimes referred to as "the English Justinian" He had a love for justice, honor, and order in his affairs. At one point in his reign, he faced a declaration of war with France and rebellions from the Welsh and Scots. He decided that the only way to overcome his difficulties would be to solicit the support of his people. In 1295 he called together a parliament consisting of representatives of the nobility, the church, and the common people. This "Model Parliament" marked the beginning of parliamentary government in England, a system which has continued to the present day. "What touches all," Edward proclaimed, "should be approved by all, and it is also clear that common dangers should be met by measures agreed upon in common." He restricted the power of the king by accepting the rule that taxes could not be levied or laws made except by the consent of parliament. ---------------------------- References 1. ^ a b N. J. Higham, David Hill, Edward the Elder, 899-924, p. 57. 2. ^ Higham & Hill, p. 67 3. ^ Higham & Hill, p. 206. 4. ^ Higham & Hill, pp. 73, 206. 5. ^ ODNB; Yorke. 6. ^ ODNB; Yorke; Asser, c. 75. 7. ^ ODNB; PASE; S 348; Yorke. 8. ^ ODNB; S 356; Yorke. 9. ^ Asser, c. 13; S 340; Yorke. Check Stafford, "King's wife". 10. ^ "England: Anglo-Saxon Consecrations: 871-1066". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/anglosaxon/01_coron.php#edward_elder. 11. ^ "Edward the Elder: Reconquest of the Southern Danelaw". http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=person&id=EdwardtheElder#4. 12. ^ "Edward the Elder: "Father and Lord" of the North". http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=person&id=EdwardtheElder#5. 13. ^ "English Monarchs: Edward the Elder". http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/saxon_7.htm. 14. ^ "Edward the Elder, king of the Anglo-Saxons". http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=person&id=EdwardtheElder. 15. ^ Lappenberg, Johann; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray. pp. pp. 98,99. 16. ^ a b Lappenberg, Johann; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray. pp. p. 99. 17. ^ Chart of Kings & Queens Of Great Britain (see References) Sources * anglo-saxons.net * David Nash Ford's Early British Kingdoms * "England: Anglo-Saxon Consecrations: 871-1066". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/anglosaxon/01_coron.php#edward_elder. * "English Monarchs: Edward the Elder". http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/saxon_7.htm. * Higham, N.J. Edward the Elder, 899-924, 2001 ISBN 0-415-21497-1 * Lappenberg, Johann; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray. pp. pp. 98,99. -------------------- Eadweard I, King of Wessex (1) M, #102434, b. circa 871, d. 17 July 924 Last Edited=6 Apr 2007 Eadweard I, King of Wessex was born circa 871 at Wantage, Dorset, England. (3) He was the son of �lfr�d, King of Wessex and Eahlwi�, Princess of Mercia. He married, firstly, Ecgwyn (?). (3) He married, secondly, �lfl�d (?), daughter of Ethelhelm, Ealdorman and Elswitha (?), circa 901. (4) He married, thirdly, Eadgifu (?), daughter of Sigehelm, Ealdorman of Kent, circa 920. (5) He died on 17 July 924 at Farndon-on-Dee, England. (6) He was also reported to have died on 7 July 924 at Farndon, Cheshire, England. He was buried at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, Hampshire, England. (6) Eadweard I, King of Wessex also went by the nick-name of Edward 'the Elder' (?). (1) He succeeded to the title of King Eadweard I of Wessex on 26 October 899. (3) He succeeded to the title of King Eadweard I of Mercia on 26 October 899. (3) He was crowned King of Wessex and Mercia on 31 May 900 at Kingston-upon-Thames, London, England. (3) Edward together with his sister Ethelfleda of Mercia, fought stoutly against the Danes. Ethelfleda built many forts notably at Chester, Hereford, Bridgenorth, Shrewsbury, Warwick, Gloucester and Tamworth. Known as The Lady of the Mercians, she died in 918 and Mercia was then united with Wessex. In 914, Edward secured the release of the Bishop of Llandaff (Cardiff) who had been captured by the Norsemen and following this, the princes of both North andSouth Wales pledged their perpetual allegiance to him. Edward doubled the size of the kingdom during his reign. It is now generally acknowledged that Edward died on the 7th July 924 but some historians give the date as 925. Children of Eadweard I, King of Wessex and Ecgwyn (?) -1. Alfred (?) (4) -2. Saint Edith (?) d. c 927 -3. �thelstan, King of England7 b. c 895, d. 27 Oct 939 Children of Eadweard I, King of Wessex and �lfl�d (?) -1. Edwin (?)7 d. 933 -2. Eadfl�d (?) (8) -3. �thelhilda (?) (8) -4. Eadgyth (?)+7 d. 26 Jan 946 -5. Edgiva (?) (7) -6. Eadhilda (?)7 d. 26 Jan 947 -7. �lfweard, King of England4 d. 1 Aug 924 -8. Elfleda (?)5 d. c 963 -9. Ethelfleda (?) (5) -10. Eadgifu (?)+7 b. 902, d. c 953 Children of Eadweard I, King of Wessex and Eadgifu (?) -1. Saint Edburga (?)7 d. 15 Jun 960 -2. Eadgifu (?) -3. Eadmund I, King of England+1 b. bt 920 - 922, d. 26 May 946 -4. Eadr�d, King of England1 b. bt 923 - 925, d. 23 Nov 955 Forr�as / Source: http://www.thepeerage.com/p10244.htm#i102434 -------------------- Edward the Elder, King of England, 901-925, -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder Edward the Elder (Old English: �A'adweard se Ieldra) (c. 870 � 17 July 924) was King of England (899 � 924). He was the son of Alfred the Great (�lfr�A"d se Gr�A"ata) and Alfred's wife, Ealhswith, and became King upon his father's death in 899. He was king at a time when the Kingdom of Wessex was becoming transformed into the Kingdom of England. The title he normally used was "King of the Anglo-Saxons"; most authorities do regard him as a king of England, although the territory he ruled over was significantly smaller than the present borders of England. Contents [hide] 1 �theling 2 Succession and early reign 3 Achievements 4 Family 5 Genealogy 6 References 7 Sources 8 External links [edit] �theling Of the five children born to Alfred and Eahlswith who survived infancy, Edward was the second-born and the elder son. Edward's name was a new one among the West Saxon ruling family. His siblings were named for their father and other previous kings, but Edward was perhaps named for his maternal grandmother Eadburh, of Mercian origin and possibly a kinswoman of Mercian kings Coenwulf and Ceolwulf. Edward's birth cannot be certainly dated. His parents married in 868 and his eldest sibling �thelfl�d was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877. [1] Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister �lfthryth. His second sister, �thelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, �thelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and �lfthryth, however, while they learned Old English, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility".[2] The first appearance of Edward, called filius regis, the king's son in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman �thelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son.[3] Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins �thelwold and �thelhelm, sons of �thelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. �thelwold and �thelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. �thelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows �thelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status.[4] As well as his greater age and experience, �thelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Eahlswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, �thelwold and �thelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen.[5] [edit] Succession and early reign When Alfred died, Edward's cousin Aethelwold, the son of King Ethelred of Wessex, rose up to claim the throne and began �thelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but Aethelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, Aethelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900 [6] In 901, Aethelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year, he attacked Cricklade and Braydon. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides met at the Battle of Holme. Aethelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle. Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.[7] In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians retaliated by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the River Humber. Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick. [edit] Achievements Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, Ethelfleda (��elfl�C�d). Ethelfleda's daughter, �lfwynn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord".[8] This recognition of Edward's overlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom. Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities.[9] He died leading an army against a Welsh-Mercian rebellion, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Norman Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park. The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxon monarchs by an unknown artist in the 18th century. Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan's Life of St �thelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr. [edit] Family Edward had four siblings, including Ethelfleda, Queen of the Mercians and �lfthryth, Countess of Flanders. King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, and may have had illegitimate children too. Edward married (although the exact status of the union is uncertain) a young woman of low birth called Ecgwynn around 893, and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric, King of Dublin and York in 926. Nothing is known about Ecgwynn other than her name, which was not even recorded until after the Conquest. [10][11] When he became king in 899, Edward set Ecgwynn aside and married �lffl�d, a daughter of �thelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire. [12] Their son �lfweard may have briefly succeeded his father, but died just over two weeks later and the two were buried together. Edward and �lffl�d had six daughters: Eadgyth who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor; Edgiva aka Edgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; �lfgifu who married "a prince near the Alps", sometimes identified with Conrad of Burgundy or Boleslaus II of Bohemia; and two nuns Eadfl�d and Eadhild. A son, Edwin �theling who drowned in 933[13] was possibly �lffl�d's child, but that is not clear. Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Edgiva, aka Eadgifu,[12] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Edred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married Louis l'Aveugle. Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Aelffaed, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder Edward the Elder (Old English: �A'adweard se Ieldra) (c. 874-7[1] � 17 July 924) was an English king. He became king in 899 upon the death of his father, Alfred the Great. His court was at Winchester, previously the capital of Wessex. He captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes in 917 and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of �thelfl�d, his sister. All but two of his charters give his title as "king of the Anglo-Saxons" (Anglorum Saxonum rex).[2] He was the second king of the Anglo-Saxons as this title was created by Alfred.[2] Edward's coinage reads "EADVVEARD REX."[3] Thechroniclers record that all England "accepted Edward as lord" in 920.[4] But the fact that York continued to produce its own coinage suggests that Edward's authority was not accepted in Northumbria.[5] Edward's eponym "the Elder"was first used in Wulfstan's Life of St �thelwold (tenth century) to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr. �theling Of the five children born to Alfred and Ealhswith who survived infancy, Edward was the second-born and the elder son. Edward's birth cannot be certainly dated. His parents married in 868 and his eldest sibling �thelfl�d was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877. [6] Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister �lfthryth. His second sister, �thelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, �thelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and �lfthryth, however, while they learned the English of the day, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility".[7] The first appearance of Edward in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman �thelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son.[8] Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins �thelwold and �thelhelm, sons of �thelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. �thelwold and �thelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. �thelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows �thelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status.[9] As well as his greater age and experience, �thelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Ealhswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, �thelwold and �thelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen.[10] [edit] Succession and early reign When Alfred died, Edward's cousin �thelwold, the son of King �thelred of Wessex, rose up to claim the throne and began �thelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but �thelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, �thelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900 [11] In 901, �thelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year, he attacked Cricklade and Braydon. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides metat the Battle of Holme. �thelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle. Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.[12] In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians retaliated by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the River Humber. Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick. These burhs were built to the same specifications (within centimetres) as those within the territory that his father had controlled; it has been suggested on this basis that Edward actually built them all.[13] [edit] Achievements Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, �thelfl�d. �thefl�d's daughter, �lfwynn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord".[14] This recognition of Edward's overlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom. Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities.[15] He died leading an army against a Welsh-Mercian rebellion, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Norman Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park. The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxon era monarchs by an unknown artist in the 18th century. Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan'sLife of St �thelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr. [edit] Family Edward had four siblings, including �thelfl�d, Lady of the Mercians, and �lfthryth, Countess of Flanders. King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, and may have had illegitimate children too. Edward first married Ecgwynn around 893 and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric C�aech, King of Dublin and York in 926. Nothing is known about Ecgwynn other than her name, which was not even recorded until after the Conquest.[16][17] When he became king in 899, Edward married �lffl�d, a daughter of �thelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire.[18] Their son �lfweard may have briefly succeeded his father, but died just over two weeks later and the two were buried together. Edward and �lffl�d had six daughters: Eadgyth who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor; Eadgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; �lfgifu who married "a prince near the Alps", sometimes identified with Conrad of Burgundy or Boleslaus II of Bohemia; and two nuns Eadfl�d and Eadhild. A son, Edwin �theling who drowned in 933[19] was possibly �lffl�d's child, but that is not clear. Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Eadgifu,[18] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Eadred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married "Louis, Prince of Aquitaine", whose identity is disputed. Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, �lffl�d, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim. [edit] Genealogy For a more complete genealogy including ancestors and descendants, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Wessex_family_tree#House_of_Wessex_family_tree Reign 26 October 899 � 17 July 924 Coronation 8 June 900, Kingston upon Thames Predecessor Alfred the Great Successor Athelstan of England and/or �lfweard of Wessex Spouse Ecgwynn, �lffl�d, and Eadgifu Father Alfred the Great Mother Ealhswith Born c.874-77 Wantage, Wessex, England Died 17 July 924 Farndon-on-Dee, Cheshire England Burial New Minster, Winchester, later translated to Hyde Abbey. -------------------- Edward the Elder King of the English Reign 26 October 899 - 17 July 924 Coronation 8 June 900, Kingston upon Thames Predecessor Alfred the Great and Ealhswith Successor �lfweard of Wessex and Athelstan of England Spouse Ecgwynn, �lffl�d, and Edgiva Father Alfred the Great Mother Ealhswith Born c.870 Wessex, England Died 17 July 924 Farndon-on-Dee, Cheshire England Burial New Minster, Winchester, later translated to Hyde Abbey Edward the Elder (Old English: �A'adweard se Ieldra) (c. 870 � 17 July 924) was King of England (899 � 924). He was the son of Alfred the Great (�lfr�A"d se Gr�A"ata) and Alfred's wife, Ealhswith, and became King upon his father's death in 899. He was king at a time when the Kingdom of Wessex was becoming transformed into the Kingdom of England. The title he normally used was "King of the Anglo-Saxons"; most authorities do regard him as a king of England, although the territory he ruled over was significantly smaller than the present borders of England. �theling Of the five children born to Alfred and Eahlswith who survived infancy, Edward was the second-born and the elder son. Edward's name was a new one among the West Saxon ruling family. His siblings were named for their father and other previous kings, but Edward was perhaps named for his maternal grandmother Eadburh, of Mercian origin and possibly a kinswoman of Mercian kings Coenwulf and Ceolwulf. Edward's birth cannot be certainly dated. His parents married in 868 and his eldest sibling �thelfl�d was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877. [1] Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister �lfthryth. His second sister, �thelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, �thelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and �lfthryth, however, while they learned Old English, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility".[2] The first appearance of Edward, called filius regis, the king's son in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman �thelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son.[3] Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins �thelwold and �thelhelm, sons of �thelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. �thelwold and �thelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. �thelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows �thelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status.[4] As well as his greater age and experience, �thelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Eahlswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, �thelwold and �thelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen.[5] Succession and early reign When Alfred died, Edward's cousin Aethelwold, the son of King Ethelred of Wessex, rose up to claim the throne and began �thelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but Aethelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, Aethelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900 [6] In 901, Aethelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year, he attacked Cricklade and Braydon. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides met at the Battle of Holme. Aethelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle. Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.[7] In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians retaliated by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the River Humber. Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick. Achievements Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, Ethelfleda (��elfl�C�d). Ethelfleda's daughter, �lfwynn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord".[8] This recognition of Edward's overlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom. Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities.[9] He died leading an army against a Welsh-Mercian rebellion, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Norman Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park. The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxon monarchs by an unknown artist in the 18th century. Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan's Life of St �thelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr. Family Edward had four siblings, including Ethelfleda, Queen of the Mercians and �lfthryth, Countess of Flanders. King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, and may have had illegitimate children too. Edward married (although the exact status of the union is uncertain) a young woman of low birth called Ecgwynn around 893, and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric, King of Dublin and York in 926. Nothing is known about Ecgwynn other than her name, which was not even recorded until after the Conquest. [10][11] When he became king in 899, Edward set Ecgwynn aside and married �lffl�d, a daughter of �thelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire. [12] Their son �lfweard may have briefly succeeded his father, but died just over two weeks later and the two were buried together. Edward and �lffl�d had six daughters: Eadgyth who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor; Edgiva aka Edgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; �lfgifu who married "a prince near the Alps", sometimes identified with Conrad of Burgundy or Boleslaus II of Bohemia; and two nuns Eadfl�d and Eadhild. A son, Edwin �theling who drowned in 933[13] was possibly �lffl�d's child, but that is not clear. Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Edgiva, aka Eadgifu,[12] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Edred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married Louis l'Aveugle. Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Aelffaed, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder -------------------- He was king at a time when the Kingdom of Wessex was becoming transformed into the Kingdom of England. The title he normally used was "King of the Anglo-Saxons"; most authorities do regard him as a king of England, -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder -------------------- Edward the Elder (Old English: �A'adweard se Ieldra) (c. 874-7[1] � 17 July 924) was an English king. He became king in 899 upon the death of his father, Alfred the Great. His court was at Winchester, previously the capital of Wessex. He captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes in 917 and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of �thelfl�d, his sister. All but two of his charters give his title as "king of the Anglo-Saxons" (Anglorum Saxonum rex).[2] He was the second king of the Anglo-Saxons as this title was created by Alfred.[2] Edward's coinage reads "EADVVEARD REX."[3] Thechroniclers record that all England "accepted Edward as lord" in 920.[4] But the fact that York continued to produce its own coinage suggests that Edward's authority was not accepted in Northumbria.[5] Edward's eponym "the Elder"was first used in Wulfstan's Life of St �thelwold (tenth century) to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr. Contents [show] * 1 �theling * 2 Succession and early reign * 3 Achievements * 4 Family * 5 Genealogy * 6 Ancestry * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links [edit] �theling Of the five children born to Alfred and Ealhswith who survived infancy, Edward was the second-born and the elder son. Edward's birth cannot be certainly dated. His parents married in 868 and his eldest sibling �thelfl�d was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877.[6] Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister �lfthryth. His second sister, �thelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, �thelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and �lfthryth, however, while they learned the English of the day, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility".[7] The first appearance of Edward in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman �thelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son.[8] Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins �thelwold and �thelhelm, sons of �thelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. �thelwold and �thelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. �thelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows �thelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status.[9] As well as his greater age and experience, �thelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Ealhswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, �thelwold and �thelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen.[10] [edit] Succession and early reign Silver brooch imitating a coin of Edward the Elder, c. 920, found in Rome, Italy. British Museum. When Alfred died, Edward's cousin �thelwold, the son of King �thelred of Wessex, rose up to claim the throne and began �thelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but �thelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, �thelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900 [11] In 901, �thelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year, he attacked Cricklade and Braydon. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides metat the Battle of Holme. �thelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle. Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.[12] In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians retaliated by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the River Humber. Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick. These burhs were built to the same specifications (within centimetres) as those within the territory that his father had controlled; it has been suggested on this basis that Edward actually built them all.[13] [edit] Achievements Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, �thelfl�d. �thefl�d's daughter, �lfwynn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord".[14] This recognition of Edward's overlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom. Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities.[15] He died leading an army against a Welsh-Mercian rebellion, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Norman Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park. The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxon era monarchs by an unknown artist in the 18th century. Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan'sLife of St �thelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr. [edit] Family Edward had four siblings, including �thelfl�d, Lady of the Mercians, and �lfthryth, Countess of Flanders. King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, (or according to some sources, an extramarital relationship and two marriages). Edward first married Ecgwynn around 893 and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric C�aech, King of Dublin and York in 926. Conflicting information about Ecgwynn is given by different sources, none of which pre-date the Conquest.[16][17] When he became king in 899, Edward married �lffl�d, a daughter of �thelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire.[18] Their son �lfweard may have briefly succeeded his father, but died just over two weeks later and the two were buried together. Edward and �lffl�d had six daughters: Eadgyth who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor; Eadgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; �lfgifu who married "a prince near the Alps", sometimes identified with Conrad of Burgundy or Boleslaus II of Bohemia; and two nuns Eadfl�d and Eadhild. A son, Edwin �theling who drowned in 933[19] was possibly �lffl�d's child, but that is not clear. Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Eadgifu,[18] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Eadred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married "Louis, Prince of Aquitaine", whose identity is disputed. Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, �lffl�d, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim. [edit] Genealogy For a more complete genealogy including ancestors and descendants, see House of Wessex family tree. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder -------------------- Succession and early reign Edward's succession to his father was not assured. When Alfred died, Edward's cousin Aethelwold, the son of King Aethelred I, rose up to claim the throne and began �thelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but Aethelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, Aethelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900 [1] In 901, Aethelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year, he attacked Cricklade and Braydon. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides met at the Battle of Holme. Aethelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle. Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.[2] In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians returned the favour by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, wherethe Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the Humber River. Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick. [edit]Achievements Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, Ethelfleda (��elfl�C�d). Ethelfleda's daughter, Aelfwinn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord".[3] This recognition of Edward'soverlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom. Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities.[4] He died leading an army against a Cambro-Mercian rebellion, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and King Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a publicpark. The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxon monarchs by an unknown artist in the 18th century. Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan's Life of St �thelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr. [edit]Family Edward had four siblings, including Ethelfleda, Queen of the Mercians and �lfthryth, Countess of Flanders . King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, and may have had illegitimate children too. Edward married (although the exact status of the union is uncertain) a young woman of low birth called Ecgwynn around 893, and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric, King of Dublin and York in 926. Nothing is known about Ecgwynn other than her name, which was not even recorded until after the Conquest. [5][6] When he became king in 899, Edward set Ecgwynn aside and married �lffl�d, a daughter of �thelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire. [7] Their son was the future king, �lfweard, and their daughter Eadgyth married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor. The couples other children included five more daughters: Edgiva aka Edgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; �lfgifu who married Conrad King of Burgundy; andtwo nuns Eadfl�d and Eadhild. According to the entry on Boleslaus II of Bohemia, the daughter Adiva (referred to in the entry for Eadgyth) was his wife. A son, Edwin �theling who drowned in 933[8] was possibly �lffl�d's child, but that is not clear. Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Edgiva, aka Eadgifu,[7] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Edred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga ofWinchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married Louis d'Aveugle, King of Arles. Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Aelffaed, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim. [edit] -------------------- Edward the Elder (Old English: �A'adweard se Ieldra) (c. 874-7[1] � 17 July 924) was an English king. He became king in 899 upon the death of his father, Alfred the Great. His court was at Winchester, previously the capital of Wessex. He captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes in 917 and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of �thelfl�d, his sister. All but two of his charters give his title as "king of the Anglo-Saxons" (Anglorum Saxonum rex).[2] He was the second king of the Anglo-Saxons as this title was created by Alfred.[2] Edward's coinage reads "EADVVEARD REX."[3] Thechroniclers record that all England "accepted Edward as lord" in 920.[4] But the fact that York continued to produce its own coinage suggests that Edward's authority was not accepted in Northumbria.[5] Edward's eponym "the Elder"was first used in Wulfstan's Life of St �thelwold (tenth century) to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr. Contents [hide] 1 �theling 2 Succession and early reign 3 Achievements 4 Family 5 Genealogy 6 Ancestry 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links [edit] �theling Of the five children born to Alfred and Ealhswith who survived infancy, Edward was the second-born and the elder son. Edward's birth cannot be certainly dated. His parents married in 868 and his eldest sibling �thelfl�d was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877.[6] Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister �lfthryth. His second sister, �thelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, �thelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and �lfthryth, however, while they learned the English of the day, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility".[7] The first appearance of Edward in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman �thelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son.[8] Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins �thelwold and �thelhelm, sons of �thelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. �thelwold and �thelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. �thelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows �thelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status.[9] As well as his greater age and experience, �thelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Ealhswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, �thelwold and �thelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen.[10] [edit] Succession and early reign Silver brooch imitating a coin of Edward the Elder, c. 920, found in Rome, Italy. British Museum.When Alfred died, Edward's cousin �thelwold, the son of King �thelred of Wessex, rose up to claim the throne and began �thelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but �thelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, �thelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900 [11] In 901, �thelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year, he attacked Cricklade and Braydon. Edward arrived with an army, and after several marches, the two sides metat the Battle of Holme. �thelwold and King Eohric of the East Anglian Danes were killed in the battle. Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.[12] In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians retaliated by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the River Humber. Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick. These burhs were built to the same specifications (within centimetres) as those within the territory that his father had controlled; it has been suggested on this basis that Edward actually built them all.[13] [edit] Achievements Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, �thelfl�d. �thefl�d's daughter, �lfwynn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord".[14] This recognition of Edward's overlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom. Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities.[15] He died leading an army against a Welsh-Mercian rebellion, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Norman Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park. The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxon era monarchs by an unknown artist in the 18th century. Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan'sLife of St �thelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr. [edit] Family Edward had four siblings, including �thelfl�d, Lady of the Mercians, and �lfthryth, Countess of Flanders. King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, (or according to some sources, an extramarital relationship and two marriages). Edward first married Ecgwynn around 893 and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric C�aech, King of Dublin and York in 926. Conflicting information about Ecgwynn is given by different sources, none of which pre-date the Conquest.[16][17] When he became king in 899, Edward married �lffl�d, a daughter of �thelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire.[18] Their son �lfweard may have briefly succeeded his father, but died just over two weeks later and the two were buried together. Edward and �lffl�d had six daughters: Eadgyth who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor; Eadgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; �lfgifu who married "a prince near the Alps", sometimes identified with Conrad of Burgundy or Boleslaus II of Bohemia; and two nuns Eadfl�d and Eadhild. A son, Edwin �theling who drowned in 933[19] was possibly �lffl�d's child, but that is not clear. Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Eadgifu,[18] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Eadred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married "Louis, Prince of Aquitaine", whose identity is disputed. Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, �lffl�d, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim. [edit] Genealogy For a more complete genealogy including ancestors and descendants, see House of Wessex family tree. Diagram based on the information found on Wikipedia[edit] Ancestry Ancestors of Edward the Elder[hide] 16. Ealhmund of Kent 8. Egbert of Wessex 4. �thelwulf of Wessex 9. Redburga 2. Alfred the Great 10. Oslac 5. Osburga 1. Edward the Elder 6. �thelred Mucil 3. Ealhswith [edit] References 1.^ Barbara Yorke in Higham & Hill Eds, pp. 25-26 2.^ a b Simon Keynes in Higham & Hill Eds, p. 57. 3.^ Higham & Hill, p. 67 4.^ Higham & Hill, p. 206. 5.^ Higham & Hill, pp. 73, 206. 6.^ ODNB; Yorke. 7.^ ODNB; Yorke; Asser, c. 75. 8.^ ODNB; PASE; S 348; Yorke. 9.^ ODNB; S 356; Yorke. 10.^ Asser, c. 13; S 340; Yorke. Check Stafford, "King's wife". 11.^ "England: Anglo-Saxon Consecrations: 871-1066". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/anglosaxon/01_coron.php#edward_elder. 12.^ "Edward the Elder: Reconquest of the Southern Danelaw". http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=person&id=EdwardtheElder#4. 13.^ Was Alfred really that great? David Keys. BBC History magazine, January 2009 volume 10 no. 1 pages 10-11 14.^ "Edward the Elder: "Father and Lord" of the North". http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=person&id=EdwardtheElder#5. 15.^ "English Monarchs: Edward the Elder". http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/saxon_7.htm. 16.^ "Edward the Elder, king of the Anglo-Saxons". http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=person&id=EdwardtheElder. 17.^ Lappenberg, Johann; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray. pp. 98-99. 18.^ a b Lappenberg, Johann; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray. pp. 99. 19.^ Chart of Kings & Queens Of Great Britain (see References) [edit] Sources anglo-saxons.net "England: Anglo-Saxon Consecrations: 871-1066". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/anglosaxon/01_coron.php#edward_elder. "English Monarchs: Edward the Elder". http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/saxon_7.htm. Higham, N.J. & Hill, D.H., Eds, Edward the Elder, 899� 924, Routledge, 2001 ISBN 0-415-21497-1 Lappenberg, Johann; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray. [edit] External links The Laws of King Edward the Elder Edward the Elder Coinage Regulations Find A Grave: Edward the Elder Preceded by Alfred the Great King of the Anglo-Saxons 899� 924 Succeeded by �lfweard in Wessex Athelstan in Mercia [hide]v �W d �W eEnglish monarchs Kingdom of the English 886� 1066 Alfred the Great � Edward the Elder � �lfweard � Athelstan the Glorious1 � Edmund the Magnificent1 � Eadred1 � Eadwig the Fair1 � Edgar the Peaceable1 � Edward the Martyr � �thelred the Unready � Sweyn Forkbeard � EdmundIronside � Cnut1 � Harold Harefoot � Harthacnut � Edward the Confessor � Harold Godwinson � Edgar the �theling Kingdom of England 1066� 1649 William I � William II � Henry I � Stephen � Matilda � Henry II2 � Henry the Young King � Richard I � John2 � Henry III2 � Edward I2 � Edward II2 � Edward III2 � Richard II2 � Henry IV2 � Henry V2 � Henry VI2 � Edward IV2 � Edward V2 � Richard III2 � Henry VII2 � Henry VIII2 � Edward VI2 � Jane2 � Mary I2 with Philip2 � Elizabeth I2 � James I3 � Charles I3 Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland 1653� 1659 Oliver Cromwell4 � Richard Cromwell4 Kingdom of England 1660� 1707 Charles II3 � James II3 � William III and Mary II3 � Anne3 1Overlord of Britain. 2Also ruler of Ireland. 3Also ruler of Scotland. 4Lord Protector. Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Persondata NAME Edward the Elder ALTERNATIVE NAMES SHORT DESCRIPTION English monarch DATE OF BIRTH 871 PLACE OF BIRTH Wessex, England DATE OF DEATH 17 July 924 PLACE OF DEATH Farndon-on-Dee, Cheshire England Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder" Categories: 870s births | 924 deaths | People from Hampshire | English monarchs | Anglo-Saxon monarchs | Anglo-Saxons killed in battle | 10th-century rulers in Europe | 9th-century rulers in Europe | 9th-century English people | 10th-century English people -------------------- Edward the Elder (Old English: �A'adweard se Ieldra) (c. 870 � 17 July 924) was King of England (899 � 924). He was the son of Alfred the Great (�lfr�A"d se Gr�A"ata) and Alfred's wife, Ealhswith, and became King upon his father's death in 899. He was king at a time when the Kingdom of Wessex was becoming transformed into the Kingdom of England. The title he normally used was "King of the Anglo-Saxons"; most authorities do regard him as a king of England, although the territory he ruled over was significantly smaller than the present borders of England. Of the five children born to Alfred and Eahlswith who survived infancy, Edward was the second-born and the elder son. Edward's name was a new one among the West Saxon ruling family. His siblings were named for their father and other previous kings, but Edward was perhaps named for his maternal grandmother Eadburh, of Mercian origin and possibly a kinswoman of Mercian kings Coenwulf and Ceolwulf. Edward's birth cannot be certainly dated. His parents married in 868 and his eldest sibling �thelfl�d was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877. Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister �lfthryth. His second sister, �thelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, �thelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and �lfthryth, however, while they learned Old English, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility". The first appearance of Edward, called filius regis, the king's son in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman �thelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son. Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins �thelwold and �thelhelm, sons of �thelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. �thelwold and �thelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. �thelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows �thelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status. As well as his greater age and experience, �thelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Eahlswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, �thelwold and �thelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen. -------------------- Became King in 899 upon the death of his father, Alfred the Great. All but two of his charters give his title as "king of the Anglo-Saxons" (Anglorum Saxonum red). He was the second king of the Anglo-Saxons as this title was created by Alfred. Edward's cousin attempted to claim his throne and began Aethelwold's Revolt and the two sides met at the Battle of Holme. Aethelwold expired in battle. Edward went on to conquer English lands occupied by the Danes. He died in battle leading an army against a Welsh-Mercian rebellion. His last resting place was moved after the Norman Conquest and is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park. -------------------- From http://www.rpi.edu/~holmes/Hobbies/Genealogy/ps05/ps05_318.htm Edward succeeded his father in October 899; often repulsed the Danish Vikings; received the submission of Welsh and Scottish kings; was buried in the "New Minster" at Winchester. He unified most of England south of the Humber River. {See "Anglo-Saxon England," 3rd Ed., Frank M. Stenton, 1971.} He acceded 31 MAY 900, Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey. The reconquest of the area settled by the Vikings, the Danelaw, was begun by Alfred's son and Heir. In this he was ably assissted by his sister, aethelflaed, the "Lady of the Mercians". The claim to be the first king of all England remains a matter of some dispute. "All the people of Mercia who had been under allegiance to Aethelflaed turned in submission to him. The kings of Wales, Hywel Clydog and Idwal and all the people of Wales, gave him their allegiance... and then the king of the Scots and the whole Scottish nation accepted him as 'Father and Lord"; so also did... all the inhabitants of Northumbria, both English and Danish, Norwegians and all others; together with the king of the Strathcylde Welsh and all his subjects." ************ Edward the Elder was the second son of Alfred the Great and was born about 871. His elder brother, Edmund, apparently died in infancy, though one tradition asserts he lived long enough to be crowned as heir apparent. In any case, the choice of his first two sons' names demonstrate Alfred's hopes for them. Both names mean 11 protector" (mund) or "guardian" (ward) of "riches", showing that Alfred hoped his sons would guard the prosperity of the nation for the future. Edward grew up firmly believing this. He was a soldier from childhood, not a scholar like his father and grandfather, and he knew, once his brother died, that it was in his hands that the future of the nation rested. He was a child throughout the wars that his father waged with the Danes, and they would have left a vivid impression on his mind. When the Danish problems arose again in 892 and 893 he commanded part of the army that capturedthe raiders. The Saxons were therefore already accustomed to him as their leader. However, after his father's death his succession did not go unchallenged. His nephew, Athelwold, the son of Athelred, was dissatisfied with the terms of Alfred's will and felt dispossessed. He seized Wimborne manor and, though he was soon chased out of Wessex, he was accepted by the Danes and Angles of York as their leader and subsequently led a revolt amongst the Danes of East Anglia. He remained a thorn in Edward's side until he was defeated and killed in 902, after which Edward was able to seal a peace treaty with the Danes of the east. However the Danes of the north still defied Edward's sovereignty, ruling jorvik as a separate Danish kingdom. Throughout 909 the Danes tested Edward's resolve with a number of border raids and skirmishes, and eventually Edward moved against them, raising a vast army. Edward harried Northumbria with little result. The following year he was tricked by the Danish fleet moving down the east coast, while the main Danish army moved across Northumbria and down into Mercia. Edward realised his error and chased theDanes, catching them at Tettenhall in August 910, where he inflicted upon them one of their most crushing defeats, resulting in the deaths of the two Danish kings Halfdan and Eowils. It was the end of the Danish hold on Jorvik, although soon after the Norse under Ragnall moved in. The Norse had been expelled from Dublin in 902 and were now landless. They first caused a nuisance in Wales and Scotland, but by 9 1 0 had become bold enough to enter Northumbria, and no sooner had Edward defeated one foe than another arrived. Rather than take them on instantly, Edward decided to work on one plan at a time. Since 905 Edward had been refortifying England. He rebuilt Chester and, along with his sister, Athelfled of Mercia, established achain of fortified towns along the border with the Danelaw, including Runcorn, Tamworth, Stafford, Warwick, down to Hertford and over to Witham in Essex. Even before these forts were finished Edward was able to use them as a base to defeat a major Danish army which moved across England into Wales in 914, but no matter where the army tried to inflict major destruction, Edward was there, and the army eventually moved out of Britain at the end of the year' Most of the forts were completed by 915, and Edward progressively advanced into Danish territory. The Danes responded and from 916 on a series of skirmishes occurred across middle England. In almost all cases the English were victorious, with major successes at Leicester, Nottingham and Bedford. Early on the Danish king, Guthrum II ,was killed, and thereafter there was no coordinated strategy from the Danes. Edward was able to pick off small bands of men one at a time. Eventually the Danes submitted. The year 920 saw the Danes of East Anglia and the Five Boroughs submitting to him. In 918, during the war with the Danes, Athelfloed had died, and though her daughter Elfwynn technically succeeded, Edward could not consider a young girl in charge during such a difficult period. Thus in 919 he assumed direct control over Mercia. With similar authority over the Danes of the east midlands, Edward now ruled over half of England. The Welsh princes, Idwal Foel, Clydog Ap Cadell and Hywel Dda, submitted to him, recognizing Edward as theiroverlord, for all that they remained sovereign princes. Even in the north, Edward's authority was recognized, though this was rather more tenuous. Ragnall of York had tried to goad the Danes into further revolt but by 920 they recognized that Edward was the victor. Ragnall realised his subterfuge would not succeed and recognized Edward as overlord; but his successor, Sitric, did not. This must have alarmed Constantine II of Scotland and Donald Mac Aedof Strathclyde, both of whom had suffered from the Norse and now felt that they needed Edward's protection by acknowledging his supremacy. Thus, by the year 922, Edward was overlord of all of Britain except for the Norse settlements of York, Orkney and the Western Isles. It was a remarkable achievement for a man whose boyhood had been spent in hiding from the Danes. Edward was a fitting son of Alfred and it was important that a strong king followed himto maintain and build upon his successes. Athelstan was such a king. Edward was married at least three times, though the legitimacy of the first is in question. Of his many children, most were daughters, but of the sons who survived him, all of them - Edwin, Elfweard, Athelstan, Edmund and Eadred � succeeded him in some form within the kingdom. References: [AR7],[RFC],[Weis1],[WallopFH],[Moncreiffe], [Paget1] -------------------- Edward was the eldest son of King Alfred the Great and Queen Elswith. At the age of twenty-two, he appears to have married a noblewoman named Egwina, though the wedding may have been uncanonical and was not recognized in some quarters. They had three or four children. At the same time, Edward was already active in his father's campaigns against the Vikings and towards the end of Alfred's reign, he was probably appointed Sub-King of Kent. Edward's path to the throne was not altogether smooth. Upon his father's death in AD 899, a rebellion broke out in favour of Edward's cousin, Aethelwold, the son of the late King Aethelred I. Failing to secure Wessex, this princewent north and found support from the people of the Norse Kingdom of York, where he was proclaimed King. With the help of the East Anglians, he subsequently attacked both Mercia and Wessex but was killed at the Battle of Holme (Essex) in AD 902. Around the same time, the King married for a second time to Aelflaed the daughter Ealdorman Aethelhelm of Wiltshire. They had eight children together. Four years later, Edward made peace with the Northerners at Tiddingford in Bedfordshire; but by AD 909, he took on a more aggressive stance by raiding the North-West. The following year, a joint Mercian and West Saxon army marched north and defeated the Northern Vikings so completely at Tettenhall (Staffordshire) that they subsequently felt it best to remain within their borders. King Edward was then able to concentrate his attentions on the Danes of East Anglia and the Five Boroughs (of the East Midlands). With the help of his sister, the formidable Lady Aethelflaed of Mercia, the next eight years saw a prolonged campaign aimed at pushing the boundaries of Wessex and Mercia northwards. This was largely achieved through the extension of King Alfred's old policy of building defensive burghs across the country, as recorded in the 'Burghal Hidage'. They were both places of refuge in time of attack and garrisoned strongholds from which assaults could be launched. After Aethelflaed's death in AD 918, Edward was able to take advantage of his niece Aelfwinn's minority and brought Mercia under direct Wessex control. Two years later, the Kings of the north - including Sigtrygg Caech (the Squinty) of Norse York, Constantine II of the Scots and Donald mac Aed of Strathclyde - met Edward at Bakewell and also finally recognised his overlordship. At the time of his third marriage, to Edith daughter of Ealdorman Sigehelm of Kent, therefore King Edward was in a strong position. Holding his territories together was not easy, however, and revolts against Edward's rule continued. In AD 924, he was forced to lead an army north once more to put down a Cambro-Mercian rebellion in Cheshire. He died at Farndon-upon-Dee in that county on 17th July. Edward's body was taken south to the reduced diocese of Winchester for burial - he had sub-divided the West Saxon sees in AD 909, creating new Bishops of Ramsbury & Sonning, Wells and Crediton. The King was interred at the familymausoleum, his own foundation (AD 901) of New Minster in the centre Winchester, and was succeeded by his sons, Aelfweard and Aethelstan. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder Edward the Elder From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Edward the Elder King of the Anglo-Saxons Reign 26 October 899 � 17 July 924 Coronation 8 June 900, Kingston upon Thames Predecessor Alfred the Great Successor Athelstan of England and/or �lfweard of Wessex Spouse Ecgwynn, �lffl�d, and Eadgifu Father Alfred the Great Mother Ealhswith Born c.874-77 Wantage, Wessex, England Died 17 July 924 Farndon-on-Dee, Cheshire England Burial New Minster, Winchester, later translated to Hyde Abbey Edward the Elder (Old English: �A'adweard se Ieldra) (c. 874-7[1] � 17 July 924) was an English king. He became king in 899 upon the death of his father, Alfred the Great. His court was at Winchester, previously the capital of Wessex. He captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes in 917 and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of �thelfl�d, his sister. All but two of his charters give his title as "king of the Anglo-Saxons" (Anglorum Saxonum rex).[2] He was the second king of the Anglo-Saxons as this title was created by Alfred.[2] Edward's coinage reads "EADVVEARD REX."[3] Thechroniclers record that all England "accepted Edward as lord" in 920.[4] But the fact that York continued to produce its own coinage suggests that Edward's authority was not accepted in Northumbria.[5] Edward's eponym "the Elder"was first used in Wulfstan's Life of St �thelwold (tenth century) to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr. Contents [show] * 1 �theling * 2 Succession and early reign * 3 Achievements * 4 Family * 5 Genealogy * 6 Ancestry * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links [edit] �theling Of the five children born to Alfred and Ealhswith who survived infancy, Edward was the second-born and the elder son. Edward's birth cannot be certainly dated. His parents married in 868 and his eldest sibling �thelfl�d was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877.[6] Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister �lfthryth. His second sister, �thelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age, perhaps due to ill health, and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, �thelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and �lfthryth, however, while they learned the English of the day, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility".[7] The first appearance of Edward in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman �thelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son.[8] Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins �thelwold and �thelhelm, sons of �thelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. �thelwold and �thelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. �thelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows �thelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status.[9] As well as his greater age and experience, �thelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Ealhswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, �thelwold and �thelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen.[10] [edit] Succession and early reign Silver brooch imitating a coin of Edward the Elder, c. 920, found in Rome, Italy. British Museum. When Alfred died, Edward's cousin �thelwold, the son of King �thelred of Wessex, rose up to claim the throne and began �thelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but �thelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, �thelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward is alleged to have been crowned at Kingston upon Thames on 8 June 900 [11] In 901, �thelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year he attacked English Mercia and northern Wessex. Edward retaliated by ravaging East Anglia, but when he retreated south the men of Kent disobeyed the order to retire, and were intercepted by the Danish army. The two sides met at the Battle of the Holme on 13 December 902. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Danes "kept the place of slaughter", but they suffered heavy losses, including �thelwold and a King Eohric, possibly of the East Anglian Danes.[12] Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.[13] In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians retaliated by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the River Humber. Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick. These burhs were built to the same specifications (within centimetres) as those within the territory that his father had controlled; it has been suggested on this basis that Edward actually built them all.[14] [edit] Achievements Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, �thelfl�d. �thefl�d's daughter, �lfwynn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord".[15] This recognition of Edward's overlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom. Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities.[16] He died leading an army against a Welsh-Mercian rebellion, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Norman Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park. The portrait included here is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxon era monarchs by an unknown artist in the 18th century. Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan'sLife of St �thelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr. [edit] Family Edward had four siblings, including �thelfl�d, Lady of the Mercians, and �lfthryth, Countess of Flanders. King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, (or according to some sources, an extramarital relationship and two marriages). Edward first married Ecgwynn around 893 and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric C�aech, King of Dublin and York in 926. Conflicting information about Ecgwynn is given by different sources, none of which pre-date the Conquest.[17][18] When he became king in 899, Edward married �lffl�d, a daughter of �thelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire.[19] Their son �lfweard may have briefly succeeded his father, but died just over two weeks later and the two were buried together. Edward and �lffl�d had six daughters: Eadgyth who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor; Eadgifu, married to Charles the Simple; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of Paris; �lfgifu who married "a prince near the Alps",sometimes identified with Conrad of Burgundy or Boleslaus II of Bohemia; and two nuns Eadfl�d and Eadhild. A son, Edwin �theling who drowned in 933[20] was possibly �lffl�d's child, but that is not clear. Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Eadgifu,[19] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Eadred, and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married "Louis, Prince of Aquitaine", whose identity is disputed. Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, �lffl�d, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim. References 1. ^ Barbara Yorke in Higham & Hill Eds, pp. 25-26 2. ^ a b Simon Keynes in Higham & Hill Eds, p. 57. 3. ^ Higham & Hill, p. 67 4. ^ Higham & Hill, p. 206. 5. ^ Higham & Hill, pp. 73, 206. 6. ^ ODNB; Yorke. 7. ^ ODNB; Yorke; Asser, c. 75. 8. ^ ODNB; PASE; S 348; Yorke. 9. ^ ODNB; S 356; Yorke. 10. ^ Asser, c. 13; S 340; Yorke. Check Stafford, "King's wife". 11. ^ "England: Anglo-Saxon Consecrations: 871-1066". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/anglosaxon/01_coron.php#edward_elder. 12. ^ Frank Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, Oxford University Press, 1971, pp. 321-2; Bernard Cornwell, �thelwold of Wessex: King of the Pagans 13. ^ "Edward the Elder: Reconquest of the Southern Danelaw". http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=person&id=EdwardtheElder#4. 14. ^ Was Alfred really that great? David Keys. BBC History magazine, January 2009 volume 10 no. 1 pages 10-11 15. ^ "Edward the Elder: "Father and Lord" of the North". http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=person&id=EdwardtheElder#5. 16. ^ "English Monarchs: Edward the Elder". http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/saxon_7.htm. 17. ^ "Edward the Elder, king of the Anglo-Saxons". http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=person&id=EdwardtheElder. 18. ^ Lappenberg, Johann; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray. pp. 98-99. 19. ^ a b Lappenberg, Johann; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray. pp. 99. 20. ^ Chart of Kings & Queens Of Great Britain (see References) [edit] Sources * anglo-saxons.net * "England: Anglo-Saxon Consecrations: 871-1066". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/anglosaxon/01_coron.php#edward_elder. * "English Monarchs: Edward the Elder". http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/saxon_7.htm. * Higham, N.J. & Hill, D.H., Eds, Edward the Elder, 899� 924, Routledge, 2001 ISBN 0-415-21497-1 * Lappenberg, Johann; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray. [edit] External links * The Laws of King Edward the Elder * Edward the Elder Coinage Regulations * Find A Grave: Edward the Elder This page was last modified on 25 July 2010 at 19:12. -------------------- http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eduard_der_%C3%84ltere Eduard der �Altere aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklop�adie Wechseln zu: Navigation, Suche Eduard Eduard der �Altere (* um 871; � 17. Juli 924) war K�onig von Wessex von 899 bis 924. Leben [Bearbeiten] Er war der zweit�alteste Sohn und Nachfolger seines Vaters Alfred des Gro�en, da sein �alterer Bruder Edmund vor 899 gestorben war. Unmittelbar nach seinem Regierungsantritt (899) wurde er von seinem Vetter �thelwold bedroht, der seinerseits den Thron von Wessex beanspruchte und von den D�anen im Norden unterst�utzt wurde. Im Jahre 904 besiegte Eduard diesen Feind in einer Schlacht endg�ultig. �Uber die Regierungszeit Eduards ist nicht viel bekannt, weil zu wenig Quellen �uberliefert sind. So fehlen beispielsweise alle k�oniglichen Urkunden der Jahre 909 bis 921. Zwischen 907 und 920 organisierten Eduard und seine Schwester �thelfl�d den Kampf gegen die D�anen im Norden Englands. 910 brachte er den D�anen in der Schlacht bei Tettenhall eine schwere Niederlage bei, konnte mit dem Ausbau seines Herrschaftsgebietes beginnen und schlie�lich die angels�achsischen K�onigt�umer im S�uden Humbriens der d�anischen Herrschaft entrei�en. Durch den Bau von Burgen dr�angte er die D�anen bis 918 hinter den Fluss Humber zur�uck. Zwar kontrollierte Eduard bis 920 Wessex, Mercia und auch den Norden bis zum Humber, doch K�onig von ganz England, wie es sein Vater war, wurde Eduard niemals offiziell. Familie [Bearbeiten] In erster Ehe war er mit Egwina (� 901/2), der Tochter eines Adeligen aus Wessex verheiratet. Mit ihr hatte er folgende Kinder: * �thelstan (K�onig von England) * Alfred (� sehr jung) * St. Edith (* um 900; � nach 927 in Tamworth) �z 30. Januar 925/926, Sihtric Caoch, K�onig von Northumbria (� 927); seit 927 �Abtissin von Tamworth. In zweiter Ehe heiratete er 901/902 Elfleda (� 920), die Tochter des Grafen Ethelhelm. Mit ihr hatte er folgende Kinder: * Edwin (� 933), Unterk�onig von Kent * Elfweard (� 1. August 924 in Oxford ), K�onig von England (17. Juli - 1. August 924) * Edfleda, Nonne in Winchester * Edgiva (Eadgifu, Ogive; * um 905; � 953) �z 1) 918/919, K�onig Karl III. von Westfranken (* 879; � 929); �z 2) 951, Heribert Graf von Meaux und Troyes (* um 910; � 980/984). * Edhilda (* etwa 907/910� ; � 26. Januar 937) �z 926/927, Hugo der Gro�e, Herzog von Franzien und Graf von Paris (* um 895; � 956). * Editha (* um 910/913; � 946/947) �z 930, Otto I., K�onig des Ostfrankenreichs (* 912; � 973) * Elgiva (� 1005) �z Herzog Boleslav II. von B�ohmen (� 999) * Ethelfleda, �Abtissin von Romsey Abbey * Ethelhilda, Nonne in Romsey Abbey In dritter Ehe heiratete er um 920 Edgiva (* um 905; � 25. August 968), die Tochter des Grafen Sigehelm von Kent. Mit ihr hatte er folgende Kinder: * Edmund I. (K�onig von England) * Eadred (K�onig von England) * St. Edburga (* um 922; � 15. Juni 960), Nonne in Nunnaminster * Edgiva (* um 923) �z entweder Ludwig III., K�onig von Provence (* etwa 880; � 5. Juni 928) oder Ebehard, Graf auf dem Nordgau (� etwa 960) Eduard hatte zudem mindestens einen unehelichen Sohn: * Gregor, Abt von Einsiedeln Siehe auch: Haus Wessex Literatur [Bearbeiten] * J. Campbell: Observations on English Government from the Tenth to the Thwelfth Centuries. 1975. ---------------------- [3173266.ged] [Sargent.FTW] EDWARD 'THE ELDER' (r. 899-924) Well-trained by Alfred, his son Edward 'the Elder' (reigned 899-924) w as a bold soldier who defeated the Danes in Northumbria at Tettenhall in 910 and was acknowledged by the Viking kingdom of York. The kings of Strath clyde and the Scots submitted to Edward in 921. By military success and pa tient planning, Edward spread English influence and control. Much of th is was due to his alliance with his formidable sister Aethelflaed, who was married to the ruler of Mercia and seems to have governed that kingdom after her husband's death. Edward was able to establish an administration for the kingdom of Englan d, whilst obtaining the allegiance of Danes, Scots and Britons. Edward di ed in 924, and he was buried in the New Minster which he had had complet ed at Winchester. Edward was twice married, but it is possible that his el dest son Athelstan was the son of a mistress. He conquered a large pa rt of central England, which at Alfred's death still remained in the han ds of the Danes. Defeated the Danes 918 Conquered Mercia 918 Northumbria 920 reigned 8 99 - 924 Founded the Univercity Of Cambridge[brucedjohnson.ged] pg 2, "Ancestral Roots of Sixty Colonists" by Frederick Lewis Weiss, 6th Edition thanks to Ken Stelmaszek[harry.ged] Well-trained by Alfred, his son Edward 'the Elder' (reigne d 899-924) was a bold soldier who defeated the Danes in Nor thumbria at Tettenhall in 910 and was acknowledged by the V iking kingdom of York. The kings of Strathclyde and the Sco ts submitted to Edward in 921. By military success and pati ent planning, Edward spread English influence and control . Much of this was due to his alliance with his formidabl e sister Aethelflaed, who was married to the ruler of Merci a and seems to have governed that kingdom after her husband 's death. Edward was able to establish an administration f or the kingdom of England, whilst obtaining the allegianc e of Danes, Scots and Britons. Edward died in 924, and he w as buried in the New Minster which he had had completed a t Winchester. Edward was twice married, but it is possibl e that his eldest son Athelstan was the son of a mistress.[brucedjohnson.ged] thanks to J. K. Loren Edward 'the Elder' Well-trained by Alfred, his son Edward 'the Elder' (reigned 899-924)was a bold soldier who defeated the Danes in Northumbria at Tettenhallin 910 and was acknowledged by the Viking kingdom of York. The kingsof Strathclyde and the Scots submitted to Edward in 921. By military success and patient planning, Edward spread English influence andcontrol. Much of this was due to his alliance with his formidablesister Aethelflaed, who was married to the ruler of Mercia and seemsto have governed that kingdom after her husband's death. Edward was able to establish an administration for the kingdom ofEngland, whilst obtaining the allegiance of Danes, Scots and Britons.Edward died in 924, and he was buried in the New Minster which he had had completed at Winchester. Edward was twice married, but it is possible that his eldest son Athelstan was the son of a mistress. Reigned 899-924. He defeated the Danes (918), taking East Anglia, &also conquered Mercia (918) and Northumbria (920). NOTE: Only the Danish invasions of the 9th century succeeded inconverting the West Saxon overlordship into the Kingdom of all England. King of Angles and Saxons He took the throne after the death of his father, Alfred, in October 899. Upon Edward's death in July 924, the throne went to Athelstan. Upon Athelstan's death in October 939, Edward's son Edmund became king. Defeated the Danes Conquered Mercia Conquered Northumbria Was married twice. AElfleade was his second wife. Edward was the second child and eldest son of King Alfred whom he succeeded as King of Wessex from 899 until 924. He was born about 872 and given a good education. There are indications that by the late 880s he was regarded as his father's heir-apparent. (This was by no means a foregone conclusion: succession was governed by no hard-And-fast rules, and there were other potential claimants.) He first emerges clearly into the light of history in 893 when he defeated a large army of Danish raiders at Farnham. His succession to the throne in 899 did not go uncontested. His cousin �thelwold, the son of Alfred's elder brother �thelred I, rose in rebellion against him, entered into alliance with the Danes of Northumberland and East Anglia, and invaded English Mercia and northern Wessex in 902. In an indecisive battle �thelwold was killed and his bid for the kingship was over. While he lasted he had been extremely dangerous. �thelwold's revolt hints at the strains inside the West Saxon dynasty, about which our sources usually maintain a discreet silence. Edward's most striking achievement as king was his conquest of the Danelaw up as far as the river Humber in a series of campaigns between 909 and 920. In these operations he was assisted by his sister �thelfl�d, the 'Lady of the Mercians'. His strategy focused upon the building of fortresses, or burhs, at key points on the fringes of his territories. Their function was at once offensive and offensive: they served both to discourage Danish raids into English land and to provide bases from which further English advances could be launched. Between 910 and 921 no less than twenty-eight burhs were constructed by Edward and �thelfl�d - a very considerable investment of resources. Edward perceived that the Danes of Northumberland had to be neutralized before he could concentrate his efforts against the southern Danes. A combined Mercian and West Saxon campaign in Northumberland in 909 brought retaliation in 910. A Northumbrian army struck into Mercia and was decisively defeated at Tettenhall in Staffordshire. Danish Northumberland gave Edward no more trouble for the next few years. In 911 he built a burh at Hertford and in 912 moved against the Danes of Essex, receiving many submissions and constructing a burh at Witham. The eastern advance was suspended in 913 and 914 as Edward beat off raiding-parties from the midlands and a much more serious attack from Danes based in Brittany who penetrated up the Bristol Channel into the lands bordering the lower Severn. After this the King resumed activities in the east. His advance was marked by the building of fortresses at Buckingham (914), Bedford (915) and Maldon (916). The year 917 was one of intense military activity, unusually well-documented in the contemporary record of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. By the end of the year Edward was in control of the whole of East Anglia together with Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire and Northamptonshire; fortresses had been built or restored at Towcester, Huntingdon, Colchester and the unidentified Wigingamere (probably in Cambridgeshire). �thelfl�d, meanwhile, had conquered Derby from the Danes. In 918 she went on to occupy Leicester, while Edward moved up the eastern side of the country, absorbing Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire (burhs at Stamford and Nottingham). His northern frontiers were made more secure by fortresses at Thelwall, Manchester and Bakewell in 919-20. West Saxon power had been carried as far as the river Humber. In a famous passage the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that in 920 the rulers of mainland Britain beyond the Humber - the Danish King of York, the Anglian Lord of Bamburgh, the King of the Britons of Strathclyde and the King of Scots - submitted to King Edward and 'chose him as father and lord'. At the very least this constituted an undertaking to live at peace with Edward, perhaps to pay tribute too, and it would appear that the promises were honored for the remainder of his reign. Edward had absorbed not merely the southern Danelaw but also English, i.e. western, Mercia. On the death of Ealdorman �thelred of Mercia in 911 Edward annexed London and Oxford 'and all the lands which belonged to them' in the valley of the Thames. Immediately after the death of his sister �thelfl�d in 918 he occupied Tamworth 'and all the nation in the land of the Mercians which had been subject to �thelfl�d submitted to him.' Shortly afterwards �thelfl�d's daughter Elfwyn was removed from Mercia to Wessex: nothing more is heard of her. The West Saxon take-over of English Mercia may have been a less peaceable affair than our sources - exclusively West Saxon - permit us to see. of one thing we can be certain: it was followed up by a thoroughgoing reorganisation of the administrative structure of Mercia. The system of local government based on shires administered by royal officials, whose origins we can dimly discern in the Wessex of King Ine two centuries before Edward's day, was extended to Mercia in the tenth century. The shires of English Mercia from Cheshire in the north to Bedfordshire in the south were artificial creations whose boundaries cut across ancient tribal units. It was an assertion of ordered power by an imperialistic West Saxon government riding roughshod over local sentiment and tradition. Exactly when the reorganisation was carried through we cannot be certain, but it is likely that that it should be attributed to Edward's initiative. Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire may have been in existence in 906; perhaps Oxfordshire originated in 911; the west midlands might have been carved up into shires between 918 and 924. In the southern Danelaw, by contrast, Edward was more respectful of earlier arrangements. Essex is the ancient kingdom of the East Saxons, and the 'North-folk' and 'South-folk' of the East Anglian kingdom were perpetuated as the shires of Norfolk and Suffolk. In the east midlands it seems that the Danes had themselves established administrative units which cut across earlier divisions, and Edward preserved these. Thus, for example, the territories of the Danish 'army of Northampton' became the English Northamptonshire. Edward 'the Elder' was the ablest strategist ever produced by the Anglo-Saxons. His campaigns displayed qualities of tenacity and imagination; their follow-up testified to a remarkable ability to organize. Our sources concentrate attention upon his military achievements. But there were others too. The fortresses of Edward's reign were not just military in function. They were intended from the first to be civilian settlements as well as military strong points; in a word, towns. Like the burhs of Alfred's reign they were in some cases quite big: Stamford was about twenty-eight acres, Stafford about thirty-eight Warwick about fifty-six. Archaeologists have shown that several of them had planned street-systems. As towns they would have had to be sustained at least to some degree by trade and industry. That this hope was realized is suggested by the history of the coinage. During the reign of Edward's son �thelstan Anglo-Saxon coins started to bear the names of the towns where they were struck. of the Edwardian burhs Chester, Derby, Gloucester, Hereford, Maldon, Nottingham, Oxford, Shrewsbury, Stafford and Tamworth possessed mints in �thelstan's reign. It is likely that several towns in this list were striking coin in Edward's day. Further evidence which suggests a lively, developing economy is furnished by Edward's legislation. of his two legal ordinances the first addressed itself particularly to issues connected with the buying and selling of livestock; and it is significant that the king wished to channel such transactions into the towns. Edward continued his parents' development and embellishment of Winchester. Early in his reign he founded a religious community there, the New Minster, so-called to distinguish it from the cathedral or Old Minster next door to it: its church was dedicated in 903. He was probably responsible for completing his mother's foundation for women at Winchester, the so-called Nunnaminster, after her death in 902. His daughter Eadburga (d. c. 951) became a nun there and was later regarded as a saint. Edward's religious patronage brought him into contact with foreign churchmen. New Minster was provided with relics of St. Judoc, a Breton saint of the seventh century. We hear casually, in a letter from the prior of Dol in Brittany to King �thelstan written in about 926, that Edward had been linked by confraternity to the canons of Dol. Since �thelstan acquired relics from this source it is possible that Edward got Judoc's relics from Dol. There may have been more contacts of this type and it is extremely likely that books and works of art also passed to England by such means. There were in addition diplomatic contacts with foreign rulers. His sister Elfthryth had been married to the Count of Flanders between 893 and 899: Anglo-Flemish contacts remained close throughout the tenth century. Between 917 and 919 Edward married his daughter Eadgifu to Charles, King of the West Frankish kingdom (i.e. France). When Charles was deposed in 922 Eadgifu came back to England as a refugee with her young son Louis. The boy was brought up in England until he was recalled to the throne of France in 936. Louis was not the only political exile in England. There were members of the Breton aristocracy, driven out by Viking invasions of Brittany in 919. Edward's court also attracted foreign churchmen. Theodred, Bishop of London from c. 926 to c. 951, was probably a German: he was promoted to an important bishopric so soon after Edward's death that it is likely that his rise to prominence occurred during the king's reign. Oda, later to be Archbishop of Canterbury, was another foreigner who made his mark under Edward. Our knowledge of these doings and persons is fragmentary, inferences to be drawn from them hazardous. Such as it is, the evidence suggests that Edward was more than just an exceptionally talented soldier. In historical reputation he has always been somewhat overshadowed by his father and his son. It was his misfortune to have had no Asser to transmit an image of him to posterity. If any such work were composed, which is possible, it has not survived. Yet his achievements were on a par with those of Alfred and �thelstan. In 924 the people of Chester rebelled. Edward went north and suppressed the revolt, and died shortly afterwards at Farndon, a little to the south of Chester, on 17 July. He was buried in the New Minster at Winchester. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- �thelstan (924-939) �thelstan was born around 894, the eldest child of King Edward 'the Elder' whom he succeeded as King of Wessex from 924 until 939. He was brought up in the household of his aunt �thelfl�d, the 'Lady of the Mercians', and was given a good education. He was the first prince of the West Saxon dynasty to have been brought up in, and therefore to have had an intimate knowledge of, Mercia. This undoubtedly helped him in the government of the recently enlarged dominion - Wessex and Mercia - which his father left to him. His succession to the throne, like that of his father and of several others in the tenth century, did not go uncontested. A certain Alfred who may possibly have been a member of the royal family challenged �thelstan's succession. That Alfred may have been more dangerous than our sources let on is suggested by the fact that �thelstan's coronation did not take place until September 925, fourteen months after his accession. Early in 926 �thelstan married one of his sisters to Sihtric, the ruler of the Viking kingdom of York. Perhaps he wanted to maintain the peaceful relations which his father had established in 920. However, Sihtric died in the following year and �thelstan moved against his brother and successor Guthfrith. In the summer of 927 he overran the Viking kingdom; went on to receive near Penrith an acknowledgement of his overlordship from three other northern princes - the rulers of Scotland, Strathclyde and Bamburgh; destroyed the fortifications of York and distributed to his followers the booty that he found there. For the first time a West Saxon king ruled directly over York. �thelstan's authority there has its tangible memorial in the coin struck in his name at the York mint. Several moneyers worked for him at York and the die which one of them used for striking coin was found in the Coppergate excavations in York. However, his hold on the north of England was not secure. It was apparently challenged in or shortly before 934 by the King of Scots, for in the summer of that year �thelstan led a punitive raid against Scotland. A much more serious challenge occurred in 937. Olaf Guthfrithson, the claimant to the kingdom of York, Constantine King of Scots and Owen King of Strathclyde came together and invaded England. They were met and defeated by �thelstan and his brother Edmund in a hard-fought battle at Brunanburh. (The site of the battle has never been satisfactorily identified. It was probably somewhere in the east midlands.) It was a famous and decisive victory, celebrated in verse in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which told how the king and his brother 'won by the sword's edge undying glory in battle.' The north gave no further trouble during �thelstan's reign. The King was also busy protecting his frontiers with the Britons to the west. At some point in the late 920s he compelled the princes of Wales to submit to him at Hereford. The river Wye was fixed as their common frontier and the Welsh agreed to pay an enormous annual tribute in gold, silver, oxen, hawks and hounds. Shortly afterwards �thelstan chased the Britons of the south-west back across the river Tamar into Cornwall, fortified Exeter in anticipation of possible future raids and established (by 931) a separate bishopric for Cornwall at St. Germans, west of the Tamar, which was to be subject to Canterbury. �thelstan maintained and extended the contacts with European rulers which had distinguished the West Saxon dynasty since at least the age of King �thelwulf. We know more about his foreign relations than we do about those of any earlier English ruler. At the time of his accession his half-sister Eadgifu, wife of the deposed King Charles of West Francia (i.e. France), was a refugee at home in England with her son Louis. In 926 the leading magnate opposed to Charles, Hugh Duke of the Franks, approached �thelstan to seek a similar marriage alliance and was rewarded with the king's half-sister Eadhild. Ten years later Louis was peaceably restored to the kingdom of France over which he ruled until 954. Meanwhile in 928 Henry I of East Francia (i.e. Germany) requested an English bride for his son Otto (later to become the emperor Otto I, d. 973), who married another of �thelstan's half-sisters, Edith. It was for the grandchild of this marriage, Matilda, that �thelweard later composed his chronicle. Yet another half-sister, �lfgifu, married King Conrad of Burgundy. �thelstan was thus connected by marriage to all the leading rulers of western Europe. He also had friendly dealings with the counts of Brittany. Further to the north, he was on good terms with Harald Fairhair, King of Norway, whose son Haakon was brought up at his court. A ring of protective alliances from which only - and significantly - the Danes and their kinsmen in Normandy were excluded thus ran from the Atlantic coasts of Brittany to the fjords of Norway to guard England's eastern and southern flanks. �thelstan's foreign policy brought him more than security. It brought him renown as a great king, 'surpassing in fame and praise all earthly kings of this age', as a Frankish abbot addressed him in about 925. of course, in assessing such compliments we must make some allowance for what has been termed the Disraeli factor. 'Everyone likes flattery; and when you come to Royalty you should lay it on with a trowel'. However, the evidence that �thelstan was regarded by contemporaries as a kind of super-king is too widespread and consistent to be discounted. In 926 the ambassadors of Hugh Duke of the Franks presented �thelstan, among much else, with the sword of Constantine and Charlemagne's lance (believed to be the Holy Lance with which Christ's side had been pierced on the cross): presents heavy with imperial overtones. �thelstan's far-flung diplomacy also assisted him to attract men of learning to his court. We know less about his team of scholars than we do about his grandfather's, but recent and subtle investigation of the manuscripts that survive from �thelstan's reign has placed it beyond doubt that such a group existed. There were important contributions which these men could make to �thelstan's regime. They could project an image of the king to his subjects - in the most literal sense. In 934 �thelstan presented a lavish manuscript of Bede's Life of St. Cuthbert to the community of St. Cuthbert at Chester-Le-Street. The book - which is now in Cambridge - had been prepared at the king's orders, probably in Winchester, and it bore a frontispiece depicting him humbly offering it to the saint. There was more than piety in this gesture. If �thelstan were going to secure his shaky hold over the north of England he needed to attract the loyalty of those who kept alive the memory of the most cherished of the northern saints. Scholars and artists as well as soldiers were the pillars of his authority. Like any other early medieval king �thelstan was constantly on the move. Foe example, in the year 931, on 23 March he was at Colchester in Essex, in late May or early June he was in or near Winchester, and then he moved gradually westward until we find him at Lifton in the west of Devon on 12 November - no doubt to hunt on Dartmoor with his Welsh hawks and hounds and to see to the establishment of the nearby bishopric of St. Germans. The entourage which gathered about the King was big. A charter issued at Lifton was witnessed by a hundred important persons. One should multiply this figure several times (to allow for families, retainers, grooms, servants) to arrive at an idea of the size of the royal court on that occasion. (One should note in passing that among these witnesses were two Welsh princes. To butter them up with some first-rate hunting while impressing them with the magnificence of the English court was one way of keeping such men docile.) The logistics of itinerant kingship must have been of some complexity. How were advance preparations made for the board and lodging of six or seven hundred persons and their mounts? We do not know the answers, for the subject is one about which we are ill-informed, but we may be certain that the administrative skills of literate and numerate royal servants would have been employed. These skills were also utilized in the drawing up of official documents. Some fifty charters have survived, most of them in copies of a later date, which have reasonable claims to be regarded as authentic records of grants of land or privilege made by �thelstan. Who wrote them? This simple question has generated and still sustains an enormous amount of academic debate, for behind it lurk larger issues. Did �thelstan have a 'chancery', in the sense of an organized body of clerks in regular attendance upon him to handle his secretarial needs? Or did the King, when writing was to be done, simply turn to the local scribal skills which happened to be available at, let us say, Colchester, Winchester or Lifton? In a word, how organized was his central government? The question is exceedingly difficult to answer for a number of technical reasons arising from the nature of the evidence. The likelihood is that the answer lies somewhere between the alternatives posed above. It is probable that there was a small group of clerks, not always in attendance on the King and certainly not organized into a chancery, on whose services �thelstan could draw as needed: the tiny nucleus of a civil service. The same men were presumably responsible for drafting the legal ordinances of which several survive from �thelstan's reign. For example, at some date unknown the king and his counsellors met at Grately in Hampshire and legislated on a wide range of issues which included the treatment of thieves, the regulation of trade, the administration of ordeals, the organisation of the coinage, the responsibilities of kinsmen for their members and of lords for their dependants, the punishment of witchcraft - and more besides. This document and others like it are generally referred to as law-codes. It is a somewhat misleading term. They are really administrative ordinances. Their closest parallels are with the similar ordinances, known as capitularies, issued in large quantities by Frankish kings of the eighth and ninth centuries. One is reminded yet again of the debt owed by English rulers of this period to their continental neighbour �thelstan died on 27 October 939 and was buried at Malmesbury. He had never married, and was succeeded by his half-brother Edmund. A contemporary has left us a description of him. �thelstan was of middling height, slim and fair-haired. 'He was much beloved by his subjects out of admiration for his courage and humility, but like a thunderbolt to rebels by his invincible steadfastness.' In both war and peace he was a great king, who built firmly and ofliberately upon the foundations laid by his father and grandfather. It was singularly fortunate for England that she experienced, at that juncture in her history, the guidance over seventy years of three such outstandingly gifted rulers. Was known as a "Bretwala" or "King of Kings" son of Alfred the Great, succeeded his father in 901. His succession was disputed by his cousin, Ethelwald the Atheling, who obtained the help of the Danes. The conflict ended with the death of Ethelwald in battle, in 905. But Edward still carried on war with the Danes, and Mercia, Northumberland, and East Anglia were subdued by him; and he extended his dominions by conquests in Scotland and Wales. Died, 925. ACCEDED TO THE THRONE UPON THE DEATH OF ALFRED THE GREAT IN 899. IN 912, DEFEATED THE DANES AT THE BATTLE OF TETTANHALL AND ADVANCED ONTO EAST ANGLIA . DEFEATED THE DANES IN 918, TOOK MERCIA, CONQUERED PORTIONS OF Northumberland IN 920. AETHELSTAN SUCCEEDS HIM AFTER HIS DEATH IN 925 (r. 899-924) Well-trained by Alfred, his son Edward 'the Elder' (reigned 899-924) was a bold soldier who defeated the Danes in Northumbria at Tettenhall in 910 and was acknowledged by the Viking kingdom of York. The kings of Strathclyde and the Scots submitted to Edward in 921. By military success and patient planning, Edward spread English influence and control. Much of this was due to his alliance with his formidable sister Aethelflaed, who was married to the ruler of Mercia and seems to have governed that kingdom after her husband's death. Edward was able to establish an administration for the kingdom of England, whilst obtaining the allegiance of Danes, Scots and Britons. Edward died in 924, and he was buried in the New Minster which he had had completed at Winchester. Edward was twice married, but it is possible that his eldest son Athelstan was the son of a mistress. _____________________ Son of Alfred the Great, Edward immediately succeeded his father to the throne. His main achievement was to use the military platform created by his father to bring back, under English control, the whole of the Danelaw, south of the Humber River RESEARCH NOTES: 899-925: King of England [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p175, Paget HRHCharles p6] 899-924: King of England [Ref: Weis AR7 #1] BIOGRAPHY: Jun 8 900: Crowned King of England [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p6] BIOGRAPHY: founded University of Cambridge [Ref: Wurts MCBarons p175] Birth: 875 Note: Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: Weis AR7 #1, Weis MC #161] 871/72 [Ref: ES II #78, Paget HRHCharles p6] abt 869 [Ref: Moriarty Plantagenet p30], parents: [Ref: CMH p382, ES II #78, Holloway WENTWORTH p18, Moriarty Plantagenet p16, Paget HRHCharles p5, Watney WALLOP #879, Weis AR #1, Weis MC #161], father: [Ref: Moriarty Plantagenet p252] Death: Jul 17 925 Note: Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: ES II #78] 924 [Ref: Watney WALLOP #879, Weis AR7 #1, Weis MC #161] 925 [Ref: CMH p382, Moriarty Plantagenet p16, Tapsell Dynasties p175] Aug 26 924 [Ref: Moriarty Plantagenet p30], note: death place given as Forndon, Northhamptonshire in [Ref: Wurts MCBarons p175] BIOGRAPHY: Father: Alfred The Great King Of England b: 849 in Wantage, Berkshire Mother: Ealhswith BIOGRAPHY: Marriage 1 Egwina Married: 1 Note: Sources for this Information: date: first marriage of Edward the Elder [Ref: ES II #78, Paget HRHCharles p6] Children Saint Edith Athelstan King Of England b: Abt 895 BIOGRAPHY: Marriage 2 Alfflaed Married: 2 Note: Sources for this Information: date: second marriage of Edward [Ref: Barlow Godwine p33, ES II #78, Moriarty Plantagenet p252, Paget HRHCharles p6, Weis AR #45], names: [Ref: Moriarty Plantagenet p16, Moriarty Plantagenet p254, Moriarty Plantagenet p30, Watney WALLOP #879] Children Elfweard Edwin Edgiva b: 890 Ethelhild Edhild Eadgyth Edfled Adiva Elfleda Etherfleda BIOGRAPHY: Marriage 3 Eadgifu Married: 919 Note: Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: Weis MC #161] 919, third marriage of Edward [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p6, Weis AR7 #1] abt 919 [Ref: Moriarty Plantagenet p30] third marriage of Edward [Ref: Moriarty Plantagenet p252], names: [Ref: ES II #78, Watney WALLOP #879] King Edward & Elfreda [Ref: Holloway WENTWORTH p18] Children Edburh Edgifu Edmund The Magnificent King Of England b: Abt 921 Edred King Of England b: Abt 923 KNOWN AS EDWARD "THE ELDER"; ACCEDED 10/899 (CROWNED KINGSTON-UPON-THAMES); UNITED THE ENGLISH; CLAIMED SCOTLAND RESEARCH NOTES: 899-925: King of England [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p175, Paget HRHCharles p6] 899-924: King of England [Ref: Weis AR7 #1] Jun 8 900: Crowned King of England [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p6] founded University of Cambridge [Ref: Wurts MCBarons p175] -------------------------- KING OF ENGLAND, RULED FROM 901 TO 925. From Encyclopedia Britannica Online, article entitled "Edward:" "by name EDWARD THE ELDER Anglo-Saxon King in England, the son of Alfred the Great. As ruler of the West Saxons, or Wessex, from 899 to 924, Edward extended his authority over almost all of England by conquering areas that previously had been held by Danish invaders. Edward ascended the throne upon his father's death in October 899, and in a battle in 902 his forces killed a rival claimant, Aethelwald, who had allied with the Danes. After defeating the Northumbrian Danes at Tettenhall, he set out in August 912 to subdue the Danes of the eastern Midlands and East Anglia. From 910 to 916 he constructed a series of fortified enclosures around his Kingdom of Wessex. "At the same time, his sister, the Mercian ruler Aethelflaed, constructed a complementary series of fortresses in the northwest Midlands. In 917 Edward and Aethelflaed launched a massive offensive, quickly overwhelming the entire Danish army of East Anglia. Upon Aethelflaed's death in June 918, Edward assumed control of Mercia, and by the end of the year the last Danish armies in the Midlands had submitted. By that time Edward's kingdom included all the land south of the Humber estuary; in 920 he pacified Northumbria. Complete political unification of England was achieved during the reign of his son and successor, Athelstan (reigned 924-939)." Edward the Elder - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: "King Edward I, the Elder, was born in about 870 AD, the son of King Alfred the Great. He became King of Wessex on his father's death in 899, and exceeded Alfred's military achievements, restoring the Danelaw to Saxon rule and reigning in Mercia from 918, after the death of his sister, Ethelfleda. He had about eighteen children from his three marriages. He died in about 924, and was buried at Winchester. He was succeeded by his eldest son, King Athelstan." Edward, byname Edward the Elder (d. 17 July 924, Farndon on Dee, England), Anglo Saxon king in England, the son of Alfred the Great. As ruler of the West Saxons, or Wessex, from 899 to 924, Edward extended his authority over almost all of England by conquering areas that previously had been held by Danish invaders. Edward ascended the throne upon his father's death in October 899, and in battle in 902 his forces killed a rival claimant, Aethelwald, who had allied with the Danes. After defeating the Northumbrian Danes at Tettenhall, he set out in August 912 to subdue the Danes of the eastern Midlands and East Anglia. From 910 to 916 he constructed a series of fortified enclosures around his Kingdom of Wessex. At the same time, his sister, the Mercian ruler Aethelflaed, constructed a complementary series of fortresses in the northwest Midlands. In 917 Edward and Aethelflaed launched a massive offensive, quickly overwhelming the entire Danish army of East Anglia. Upon Aethelflaed's death in June 918, Edward assumed control of Mercia, and by the end of the year the last Danish armies in the Midlands had submitted. By that time Edward's kingdom included all the lands south of the Humber estuary; in 920 he pacified Northumbria. Complete political unification of England was achieved during the reign of his son and successor, Athelstan (reigned 924-939). [Encyclopaedia Britannica] Following copied from Barry Hummel, Jr, World Connect db=siderhummel, rootsweb.com: "Well-trained by Alfred, his son Edward 'the Elder' (reigned 899-924) was a bold soldier who defeated the Danes in Northumbria at Tettenhall in 910 and was acknowledged by the Viking kingdom of York. The kings of Strathclyde and the Scots submitted to Edward in 921. By military success and patient planning, Edward spread English influence and control. Much of this was due to his alliance with his formidable sister Aethelflaed, who was married to the ruler of Mercia and seems to have governed that kingdom after her husband's death. Edward was able to establish an administration for the kingdom of England, whilst obtaining the allegiance of Danes, Scots and Britons. Edward died in 924, and he was buried in the New Minster which he had had completed at Winchester. Edward was twice married, but it is possible that his eldest son Athelstan was the son of a mistress."
b. Note:   BI135909
Note:   Sources for this Information: date: (880) [Ref: ES II #78] abt 880 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p5], parents: [Ref: ES II #78, Paget HRHCharles p5]
c. Note:   DI135909
Note:   Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: ES II #78, Paget HRHCharles p6]


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