Gertrude Of Saxony: Birth: Abt 1154. Death: 1 Jul 1197
Rixa Of Saxony: Death: 14 Feb 1167
Heinrich : Death: 1 Nov
Rixa Of Saxony: Birth: 1172. Death: 1204
Maud Of Saxony: Birth: 1172. Death: 13 Jan 1209
Mechtild Of Saxony: Birth: 1150. Death: Bef 1219
Note: Alias:<ALIA> The /Lion/ Heinrich V of Saxon Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der L�owe; 1129 - 6 August 1195) was a member of the Guelph dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, which duchies he held until 1180. He was one of the most powerful German princes of his time, until the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty succeeded in isolating him and eventually deprived him of his duchies of Bavaria and Saxony during the reign of his cousin Frederick I and of Frederick's son and successor Henry VI. At the height of his reign, Henry ruled over a vast territory stretching from the coast of the North and Baltic Seas to the Alps, and from Westphalia to Pomerania. Henry achieved this great power in part by his political and military acumen and in part through the legacies of his four grandparents. Biography Born in Ravensburg, he was the son of Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, who was the son of Duke Henry the Black and an heiress of the Billungs, former dukes of Saxony. Henry's mother was Gertrud, only daughter of Emperor Lothair III and his wife Richenza of Northeim, heiress of the Saxon territories of Northeim and the properties of the Brunones, counts of Braunschweig. Henry's father died in 1139, aged 32, when Henry was still a child. King Conrad III had dispossessed Henry the Proud, who had been his rival for the crown in 1138, of his duchies in 1138 and 1139, handing Saxony to Albert the Bear and Bavaria to Leopold of Austria. Henry, however, did not relinquish his claims to his inheritance, and Conrad returned Saxony to him in 1142. A participant in the 1147 Wendish Crusade, Henry also reacquired Bavaria by a decision of the new Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1156. Henry is the founder of Munich (1157/58; M�unchen) and L�ubeck (1159); he also founded and developed the cities of Stade, L�uneburg and Braunschweig. In Braunschweig, his capital, he had a bronze lion, his heraldic animal, erected in the yard of his castle Dankwarderode in 1166 - the first bronze statue north of the Alps. Later, he had Brunswick Cathedral built close to the statue. In 1147 Henry married Clementia of Z�ahringen, thereby gaining her hereditary territories in Swabia. He divorced her in 1162, apparently under pressure from Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who did not cherish Guelphish possessions in his home area and offered Henry several fortresses in Saxony in exchange. In 1168 Henry married Matilda (1156 -1189), the daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and sister of Richard Lionheart. Henry long and faithfully supported his older cousin, Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), in his attempts to solidify his hold on the Imperial Crown and his repeated wars with the cities of Lombardy and the Popes, several times turning the tide of battle in Frederick's favor with his fierce Saxon knights. But in 1174, Henry refused to aid Frederick in a renewed invasion of Lombardy because he was preoccupied with securing his own borders in the East. He did not consider these Italian adventures worth the effort, even after Frederick offered him the rich Imperial City of Goslar in southern Saxony as a reward, a prize Henry had long coveted. Barbarossa's expedition into Lombardy ended in utter failure. He bitterly resented Henry for failing to support him. Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, who had successfully established a powerful and contiguous state comprising Saxony, Bavaria and substantial territories in the north and east of Germany, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia for insubordination by a court of bishops and princes in 1180. Declaring that Imperial law overruled traditional German law, the court had Henry stripped of his lands and declared him an outlaw. Frederick then invaded Saxony with an Imperial army to bring his cousin to his knees. Henry's allies deserted him, and he finally had to submit in November 1181 at a Reichstag in Erfurt. He was exiled from Germany in 1182 for three years, stayed with his father-in-law, Henry II of England, in Normandy before being allowed back into Germany in 1185. He was exiled again in 1188. His wife Matilda died in 1189. Henry's duchies Saxony and Bavaria When Frederick Barbarossa went on the Crusade of 1189, Henry returned to Saxony, mobilized an army of his faithful, and conquered and ravaged the rich city of Bardowick as punishment for her disloyalty. Only the churches were left standing. Barbarossa's son, Emperor Henry VI, again defeated the Duke, but in 1194, with his end approaching, he made his peace with the Emperor, and returned to his much diminished lands around Braunschweig (Brunswick), where he finished his days as duke of Braunschweig, peacefully sponsoring arts and architecture. He died on 6 August 1195. The picture at the top right, taken from his tomb in Braunschweig Cathedral constructed between 1230 and 1240, shows an idealized image. When the Nazis exhumed his corpse, they were disappointed to find a comparatively small man with black hair. This, presumably, was an inheritance from the northern Italian ancestors of the Guelphs, the counts of Este. ---------------------------------- HEINRICH ([1129/30]-Braunschweig 6 Aug 1195, bur Braunschweig Cathedral). His date of birth is calculated from his dying in his 66th year, according to the chronicle of the Steterburg foundation near Wolfenb�uttel, Jordan pointing out that the chronicle's author provost Gerhard was close to Heinrich during the last years of his life. After his father's death the dispute with Konrad III King of Germany over the Welf duchies of Bavaria and Saxony continued. A temporary settlement was achieved in 1142 when Albrecht "der B�ar" relinquished Saxony, which was awarded to Heinrich, who was installed as HEINRICH "der L�owe" Duke of Saxony on condition that he formally renounce his claim to the duchy of Bavaria. He renewed his claim to Bavaria after the death of his mother, whose second marriage had been arranged as part of the settlement of the issue in 1142. "Henricus dux Saxonie" confirmed the privileges of Kloster Bursfeld, founded by "comes Henricus filius Ottonis ducis, proavus meus", by charter dated 23 Jul 1144. After a lengthy dispute with Albrecht "der B�ar" Markgraf von Brandenburg over the inheritance of the counts of Pl�otzkau and Hermann von Winzenburg, Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany assigned the Pl�otzkauer inheritance to Markgraf Albrecht and the Winzenburger inheritance to Duke Heinrich at the diet of W�urzburg in Oct 1153. In order to terminate the longstanding dispute between the German kings and the Welf family, Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany deprived Heinrich "Jasomirgott" Markgraf of Austria of the duchy of Bavaria in favour of Duke Heinrich in 1156. The latter was installed as HEINRICH XII Duke of Bavaria, although he spent much less time in Bavaria than in Saxony, presumably because of Bavaria's greater internal administrative unity which demanded less oversight than Saxony. In 1158, he exchanged some territories with Emperor Friedrich I, receiving land in the southern Harz for the domains which he had received as dowry on his first marriage. From 1166 to 1170, the rebellion of the league of princes severely disrupted the administration of Saxony. Heinrich Duke of Bavaria and Saxony donated property to the church "sancte Marie?in Ourenkierken", with the consent of "heredis nostri?filie nostre Gerthrudis", by charter dated 3 Aug 1171. Duke Heinrich made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1172 but refused the invitation of Amaury I King of Jerusalem to fight. He lost the duchies of Saxony and Bavaria in 1180, but retained his mother's inheritance of Brunswick where he established his court. He was tried in absentia at Worms in Jan 1179 for having expelled Ulrich Bishop of Halberstadt, and outlawed. Heinrich was dispossessed of his properties in summer 1180. He submitted at the general assembly at Erfurt in Nov 1181, was restored to his allodial lands around Brunswick and L�uneburg, but was exiled for three years. He left with his wife in Jul 1182 and sought refuge with his father-in-law first in Normandy, later in England, before returning to Germany in 1185. "Heinricus dux de Brunswic?" witnessed the charter dated 1186 under which Konrad [I] Archbishop of Mainz confirmed property of Tettenborn church. When Emperor Friedrich I was preparing to leave on crusade in late 1189, Heinrich refused to accompany him and chose exile in England once more. He returned to Germany in Oct 1189 after the death of his wife. He destroyed Bardowick, captured L�ubeck and Lauenburg, and attracted Hamburg to his support. Heinrich VI King of Germany appealed for help against Duke Heinrich at a diet at Merseburg in Oct 1189, unsuccessfully besieged Brunswick, but sacked Hannover. King Heinrich made a peace settlement with Duke Heinrich at Fulda in Jul 1190. Heinrich failed to observe the terms of the peace agreement. Although the Saxon princes assembled troops led by Wichmann Archbishop of Magdeburg, a truce was agreed. Duke Heinrich and Emperor Heinrich VI were finally reconciled in Mar 1194 at Tilleda on the Kyffh�auser mountain, when the former was reconfirmed in his allodial possessions and agreed to take part in the imperial campaign in Italy later that year. The Chronicon Montis Serreni records the death in 1195 of "Heinricus dux de Bruneswich" and his burial "in mon. sancti Blasii iuxta uxorem". The necrology of L�uneburg records the death "6 Aug" of "Heinricus dux". m firstly ([1148/49], divorced Konstanz 23 Nov 1162) as her first husband, KLEMENTIA von Z�ahringen, daughter of KONRAD Herzog von Z�ahringen & his wife Cl�emence de Namur (-[1173/75]). The Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis names "filiam ducis Zaringie, Clementiam" as wife of "Heinricus dux". Heiress of Badenweiler, although her first husband sold these Swabian estates to Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany in 1158, receiving in exchange Herzberg, Scharzfels and P�ohlde south of the Harz. Her first marriage was arranged to confirm her father's alliance with the Welf party in southern Germany. The Annales Palidenses record the repudiation by "Heinricus dux" of his first wife "Bertoldi ducis Zaringe sorore". Her first husband repudiated Klementia because of the growing difficulties between her brother Duke Berthold IV and Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa", with whom Duke Heinrich was by then in close alliance. She married secondly (1164) as his third wife, Humbert III Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie. The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not so far been identified. m secondly (betrothed 1165, Minden Cathedral 1 Feb 1168) MATILDA of England, daughter of HENRY II King of England & his wife El�eonore Dss d?Aquitaine (Windsor Castle Jun 1156-Brunswick 28 Jun 1189, bur Brunswick Cathedral). The Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis names "Megthildem filiam Henrici regis Anglorum" as second wife of "Heinricus dux". Her birth is recorded by Matthew of Paris. The Chronicle of Gervase records the marriage in 1168 of "Matildis filia regis Anglie" and "dux Saxonum Henrico". Her marriage was arranged as part of the 1165 treaty of alliance between Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany and her father. The Annales Sancti Blasii Brunsvicenses record that "ecclesia Sancti Blasii episcopi" was founded in 1173 and in a later passage record the death in 1188 of "domina nostra Mechtildis fundatrix". The Chronicon Montis Serreni records that "soror Rikardi Regis Anglie" wife of "Heinricus dux de Bruneswich" was buried "in mon. sancti Blasii". Mistress (1): [--- von Blieskastel, daughter of GOTTFRIED Graf von Blieskastel & his wife ---] (-). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Mathildem [de Luscelenburch]" as mother of "comitem Folmerum et sorores eius Helvidem, quam habuit comes Gerardus de Reneke dyocesis Herbipolensis et illam qua dux de Bronsviic genuit filiam, que in Sclavia hereditavit", although the Chronicle appears to skip a generation in this account. The likely birth date of this individual suggests it is unlikely that she was the daughter of Graf Gottfried [I], given the other dates attributed to his children. Until corroboration of her parentage is found in other sources, the accuracy of Alberic must be considered doubtful. Jordan clarifies that the name "Ida" attributed to Duke Heinrich's mistress is incorrect, being an error deriving from Origines Guelfic� which, in recopying from the Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines, miscopied the word "illam" as "Idam". Duke Heinrich had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1). Notes (www.fmg.ac):  Jordan (1986), p. 22.  Stumpf, K. F. (ed.) (1863) Urkunden zur Geschichte des Erzbisthums Mainz im zw�olften Jahrhundert (Acta Maguntina Seculi XII) (Innsbruck) (?Mainz Urkunden 12th Century?), 28, p. 31.  Fuhrmann (1995), p. 140, and Jordan (1986), p. 44.  Fuhrmann (1995), p. 140.  Jordan (1986), pp. 131-2.  Fuhrmann (1995), p. 163.  Erhard, H. A. (ed.) (1851) Regesta histori� Westfali� (M�unster) ("Westfali� Regesta") Band II, CCCXLVIII, p. 111.  Runciman (1978) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books), Vol. 2, p. 393.  Jordan (1986), p. 183, and Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 168-9.  Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 99, p. 102.  Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 10.  Jordan (1986), pp. 189-92, and Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 176 and 180-1.  Jordan (1986), pp. 193-5.  Jordan (1986), p. 197.  Chronicon Montis Serreni 1195, MGH SS XXIII, p. 166.  Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenb�ucher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und L�uneburg (Hannover), L�uneburg.  Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 396.  Jordan (1986), pp. 65 and 95.  Haverkamp (1988), p. 146.  Annales Palidenses 18 1160, MGH SS XVI, p. 94.  Haverkamp (1988), p. 223.  Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 396.  MP, Vol. II, 1156, p. 212, although he gives neither the place nor the precise date.  Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1879) The Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury, Vol. I (London) (?Gervase?), p. 205.  Fuhrmann (1995), p. 159.  Annales Sancti Blasii Brunsvicenses 1173 and 1188, MGH SS XXIV, p. 824.  Chronicon Montis Serreni 1195, MGH SS XXIII, p. 166.  Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1168, MGH SS XXIII, p. 851.  For example in Brandenburg, E. (1935) Die Nachkommen Karls des Grossen, p. 44.  Origines Guelfic�, Vol. III, pp. 181.  Jordan (1986), p. 256. RESEARCH NOTES: Duke of Saxony [Ref: ES I.1 #18, Tapsell Dynasties p215, Paget HRHCharles p14] Duke of Bavaria [Ref: ES I.1 #18, Tapsell Dynasties p222, Paget HRHCharles p14] Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p14] 1142: Duke of Saxony [Ref: ES I.1 #18] 1142-1180: Duke of Saxony [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p215] 1142: restored as Duke of Saxony [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p223] 1156: Duke of Bavaria [Ref: ES I.1 #18] 1156-1180: Duke of Bavaria [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p222] 1158: restored as Duke of Bavaria [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p223] 1159: founded city of Lubeck [Ref: ES I.1 #18] 1179: founded city of Reichsacht [Ref: ES I.1 #18] 1180: deprived of both Saxony and Bavaria, Saxony taken by Bernard of Ascania, and Bavaria by Otto of Wittlesbach [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p223] 1186: restored to Brunswick and Luneburg [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p223] ----- Europaische Stammtafeln I.1 #18 ("Die - jungeren - Welfen a.d.H. Este, Herzoge von Bayern 1070-1138 und 1156-1180, Herzoge von Sachsen 1137-1139 und 1142-1180, Pfalzgrafen bei Rhein 1195-1214, Romischer Konig seit 1198, Romischer Kaiser 1209-1218"): Heinrich der Lowe 1142 Hz v Sachsen, 1156 Hz v Bayern, grundet 1159 Stadt Lubeck neu, 1179 Reichsacht, I 1180 Aberkennung der Reichsleben, 1194 Aussohnung *(1132-1133) d. Braunnschweig 6.VIII 1195 u. ibidem Dom; m1. um 1148-1149 Clementia v Zahringen, in Badenweiler, d. before 1167 gesch Konstanz 23.XI 1162 T v Hz Konrad, 1138 Hz v Burgund (m2. 1163 Humbert III, 1150 Gf v Savoyen d. 4.III 1189); m2 Minden 1.II 1168 Mathilde v England (Anjou-Plantagenet) *1156 e. raunschweig 28.VI 1189 u. ibidem Dom T v Heinrich (Henry) II Courtmantle, 1151 Cte d'Anjou, 1154 Kg v England; children: by I: Heinrich, Gertrud, Richinza, by II: Richenza, heinrich, Lothar, Otto, Sohn, Wilhelm, (aus der Verbindung mit N T v Gottfried I Gf v Blieskastel): Mathilde [Ref: ES I.1 #18] BIBLIOGRAPHY: Burke, Sir John Bernard, Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and Baronetage, The Privy Council, Knghtage and Companionage. 72nd edition. London: Harrison & Sons, 1910. Louda, Jiri, and Michael MacLagan, Heraldry of The Royal Families of Europe. New York: Clarkson Potter, 1981. Morris County Library 929.6094. Paget, Gerald, The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. London: Charles Skilton Ltd, 1977. Nypl ARF+ 78-835. Previte-Orton, C. W., The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge: University Press, 1952. Chatham 940.1PRE. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. I.1: Die frankischen Konige und die Konige und Kaiser, Stammesherzoge, Kurfursten, Markgrafen und Herzoge des Heiligen Romischen Reiches Deutscher Nation. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1998. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. I: Die Stammesherzoge, Die Weltlichenkurforsten, Die Kaiserlichen, Koniglichen und Grossherzoglichen Familien. Marburg: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1980. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. II: Die Ausserdeutschen Staaten Die Regierenden Hauser der Ubrigen Staaten Europas. Marburg: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1984. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. XVIII: Zwischen Maas und Rhein. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1998. Tapsell, R. F., Monarchs, Rulers, Dynasties and Kingdoms of the World. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1983. Watney, Vernon James, The Wallop Family and their Ancestry, Oxford:John Johnson, 1928. LDS Film#1696491 items 6-9. van de Pas, Leo, Stephen de Blois. Posting to soc.genealogy.medieval (email list GEN-MEDIEVAL) on 12/31/1998-025515. Subject: Stephen de Blois - ONE. Available at http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/1998-12/0915101715, http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/1998-12/0915105338, http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/1998-12/0915111633, and http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/1998-12/0915127331. Author address: leovdpas at iinet dot net dot au.
Note: Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: ES I #58, Paget HRHCharles p14, Paget HRHCharles p223, Watney WALLOP #65, Watney WALLOP #9], place: Ravensburg? [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p223], parents: [Ref: CMH p556, ES I #58, Paget HRHCharles p223, Watney WALLOP #65], father: [Ref: Louda RoyalFamEurope #99, Tapsell Dynasties p215]
Note: Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: ES I #58, ES II #83, Paget HRHCharles p14, Paget HRHCharles p224] 1180 [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p215] 1195 [Ref: CMH p556, ES I #129, Louda RoyalFamEurope #2, Louda RoyalFamEurope #99, Watney WALLOP #65, Watney WALLOP #9], place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p14, Paget HRHCharles p224]
Note: Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: ES I #129, ES I #58] 1150 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p223] firstmarriage of Clemence [Ref: ES II #190] first marriage of Henry [Ref: CMHp556], divorced: [Ref: ES II #190] separated in 1162 [Ref: ES I #129, ES I#58, Paget HRHCharles p223], child: [Ref: ES I #58, ES I.1 #18, PagetHRHCharles p223]
Note: Sources for this Information: date: concubine [Ref: ES XVIII #152 (with corr in I.2)], names: Henry the Lion & dau Gottfried I Count of Blieskastel [Ref: ES I.1 #18], child: [Ref: ES I.1 #18, Paget HRHCharles p224]
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