Individual Page

Marriage: Children:
  1. Euphemia Of England: Birth: Jul 1101 in Winchester. Death: Abt 1120 in Died Young

  2. William IV Of Normandy: Birth: 1102 in Winchester. Death: 25 Nov 1120 in Barfleur, Off The Coast In, White Ship

  3. Matilda : Birth: 7 Feb 1102 in Royal Palace, Sutton Courtenay, Berkshire, England. Death: 10 Sep 1167 in Notre Dame, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, France

  4. William Atheling IV Duke Of Normandy: Birth: Bef 5 Aug 1103 in Winchester, England. Death: 26 Nov 1119 in Wreck Of The White Ship

  5. Richard England: Birth: Abt 1105. Death: 25 Nov 1120 in Barfleur, Off The Coast In, White Ship

  6. Eustace : Death: 1153

  7. Person Not Viewable

  8. Richard: Death: 26 Nov 1119 in Wreck Of The White Ship

  9. Constance : Death: Aft 1168

Marriage: Children:
  1. Maud Of England: Birth: Abt 1099 in England.

  2. Henry Fitzhenry: Birth: 1103 in Narberth And Pebidiog, Wales. Death: 1158 in Anglesey, Carnarvonshire, Wales (Killed During Invasion Of Anglesey)

  3. Person Not Viewable

Marriage: Children:
  1. Alice Of England: Birth: Abt 1114 in Selby, Yorkshire, England. Death: 1141 in Montmorency, Val D'oise, France

  2. Constance Fitzhenry: Birth: Abt 1115 in England.

  3. Isabel : Birth: Abt 1120. Death: 1120 in Unmarried

  4. Person Not Viewable

Marriage: Children:
  1. William De Tracy, Baron Of Badninch: Birth: Aft 1090. Death: Abt 1135

  2. Robert De Caen: Birth: Abt 1090 in Caen, Calvados, Normandy, France. Death: 31 Oct 1147 in Bristol, Gloucestershire, England

  3. Rohese Fitzherbert: Birth: Aft 1091. Death: Abt 1176 in Berry Pomeroy, Totnes, Devonshire, England

  4. Sibylla Fitzhenry: Birth: Abt 1104 in Domfront, Normandy. Death: 12 Jul 1122 in Island Of The Woman, Loch Tay, Scotland

  5. Rainald De Dunstanville: Birth: Abt 1110 in Dunstanville, Kent, England. Death: 1 Jul 1175 in Chertsey, Surrey

  6. Person Not Viewable

  7. Person Not Viewable

  8. Eufemia : Death: 1119

  9. Person Not Viewable

  10. Emma : Death: Aft 1157

  11. Person Not Viewable

  12. Person Not Viewable

  13. Person Not Viewable

  14. Gundred : Death: Aft 1130

  15. Gilbert : Death: Aft 1142

  16. Person Not Viewable

  17. Sibyl-Elizabeth : Death: Abt 12 Jul 1122 in Loch Tay

Marriage: Children:
  1. Mabel (Eustacia) Fitzroy: Birth: Abt 1088 in Normandy.

  2. Robert De Caen: Birth: Abt 1090 in Caen, Calvados, Normandy. Death: 31 Oct 1147 in Bristol Castle, Gloucestershire, England

  3. William De Tracy: Birth: Aft 1090 in Bradninch, Tiverton, Devonshire, England. Death: Aft 1135

  4. Elizabeth Of England: Birth: Abt 1095 in Talby, Yorkshire, England.

Marriage: Children:
  1. Juliane Nun At Fontevrault: Birth: Abt 1090. Death: Aft 1136

  2. Fulk Monk Of Abingdon Fontevrault: Birth: Bef 1100.

  3. Richard Of Suffolk: Birth: Bef 1101. Death: 25 Nov 1120 in Drowned In The White Ship

  4. Person Not Viewable

  5. Juliane : Death: Aft 1119

Marriage: Children:
  1. Matilda Of England: Birth: 1086 in England. Death: 25 Nov 1120 in White Ship

  2. Robert Fitzedith: Birth: Abt 1098 in England. Death: 1172

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a. Note:   Henry I of England From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Henry I By the Grace of God, King of the English and Duke of the Normans Reign 3 Aug,1100 - 1 Dec,1135 Coronation August 5, 1100 Queen Edith of Scotland (c. 1080-1118) Adeliza of Louvain (1103-1151) Issue Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (illeg., c. 1090-1147) Empress Matilda (c. 1102-1167) Royal House Norman Father William I (c. 1028-1087) Mother Matilda of Flanders (1031-1083) Born c. 1068 Selby, Yorkshire Died 1 December 1135 St. Denis le Fermont, Normandy Buried Winchester Cathedral Henry I of England (c.1068 � 1 December 1135), called Henry Beauclerc beca use of his scholarly interests, was the fourth son of William the Conquero r. He reigned as King of England from 1100 to 1135, succeeding his brothe r, William II Rufus. Henry also was known by the nickname "Lion of Justice ", due to the refinements which he brought about in the rudimentary admini strative and legislative machinery of the time. He seized power after the death of William II, which occurred (convenientl y) during the absence of his older brother Robert Curthose on the Crusades . His reign is noted for his opportunistic political skills, the aforementio ned improvements in the machinery of government, the integration of the di vided Anglo-Saxon and Normans within his kingdom, his reuniting of the dom inions of his father, and his controversial (although well-founded) decisi on to name his daughter as his heir. Contents 1 Early life 2 Seizing the throne of England 3 First marriage 4 Conquest of Normandy 5 Activities as a King 6 Legitimate children 7 Second marriage 8 Death and legacy 9 Illegitimate Children 9.1 With Edith 9.2 With Ansfride 9.3 With Sibyl Corbet 9.4 With Edith FitzForne 9.5 With Princess Nest 9.6 With Isabel de Beaumont 10 See also 11 References 12 External links Early life Henry was born between May 1068 and May 1069, probably in Selby, Yorkshi re in England. His mother, Queen Matilda of Flanders, named him after h er uncle, King Henry I of France. As the youngest son of the family, he w as most likely expected to become a bishop and was given extensive schooli ng for a young nobleman of that time period. William of Malmesbury asser ts that Henry once remarked that an illiterate king was a crowned as s. He was probably the first Norman ruler to be fluent in the English lang uage. His father William, upon his death in 1087, bequeathed his dominions to h is three remaining sons (third son Richard having died previously) in t he following manner: Robert received the Duchy of Normandy William received the Kingdom of England Henry received 5,000 pounds of silver Orderic Vitalis reports that King William declared to Henry: "You in yo ur own time will have all the dominions I have acquired and be greater th an both your brothers in wealth and power." Henry played his brothers off against each other. Eventually, wary of h is devious manouevering, they acted together and signed an accession trea ty which effectively barred Henry from both thrones, stipulating that if e ither died without an heir, the two dominions of their father would be reu nited under the surviving brother. Seizing the throne of England When William II was killed by an arrow whilst hunting on 2 August 1100, Ro bert was returning from the First Crusade. His absence, along with his po or reputation among the Norman nobles, allowed Henry to seize the ke ys of the royal hoard at Winchester. He was accepted as king by the leadi ng barons and was crowned three days later on 5 August at Westminste r. He secured his position among the nobles by an act of political appease ment, issuing the Charter of Liberties, which is considered a forerunn er of the Magna Carta. First marriage On 11 November 1100 Henry married Edith, daughter of King Malcolm III of S cotland. Since Edith was also the niece of Edgar Atheling, the marriage un ited the Norman line with old English line of kings. The marriage great ly displeased the Norman barons, however, and as a concession to their sen sibilities Edith changed her name to Matilda upon becoming queen. The oth er side of this coin, however, was that Henry, by dint of his marriage, be came far more acceptable to the Anglo-Saxon populace. William of Malmesbury describes Henry thus: "He was of middle stature, gre ater than the small, but exceeded by the very tall; his hair was black a nd set back upon the forehead; his eyes mildly bright; his chest brawny; h is body fleshy." [edit] Conquest of Normandy In 1101, the following year, Robert Curthose attempted to seize the cro wn by invading England. In the Treaty of Alton, Robert agreed to recogni ze Henry as King of England and return peacefully to Normandy, upon recei pt of an annual sum of 2000 marks, which Henry proceeded to pay. In 1105, to eliminate the continuing threat from Robert and to obviate t he drain on his fiscal resources, Henry led an expeditionary force acro ss the English Channel. In 1106, he defeated his brother's Norman army dec isively at Tinchebray in Normandy. He imprisoned his brother, initial ly in the Tower of London, subsequently at Devizes Castle and later at Car diff. Henry appropriated the Duchy of Normandy as a possession of Englan d, and reunited his father's dominions. He attempted to reduce difficulties in Normandy by marrying his eldest so n, William, to the daughter of Fulk V, Count of Anjou, then a serious enem y. Eight years later, after William's untimely death, a much more momento us union was made between Henry's daughter Matilda and Fulk's son Geoffr ey Plantagenet, which eventually resulted in the union of the two realms u nder the Plantagenet kings. Activities as a King Henry I depicted in Cassell's History of England (1902)Henry's need for fi nance to consolidate his position led to an increase in the activiti es of centralized government. As king, Henry carried out social and judici al reforms, including: issuing the Charter of Liberties restoring laws of King Edward the Confessor. Henry was also known for some brutal acts. He once threw a traitorous burg her named Conan Pilatus from the tower of Rouen; the tower was known fr om then on as "Conan's Leap". In another instance that took place in 111 9, King Henry's son-in-law, Eustace de Pacy, and Ralph Harnec, the constab le of Ivry, exchanged their children as hostages. When Eustace blinded Har nec's son, Harnec demanded vengeance. King Henry allowed Harnec to blind a nd mutiliate Eustace's two daughters, who were also Henry's own grandchild ren. Eustace and his wife, Juliane, were outraged and threatened to rebe l. Henry arranged to meet his daughter at a parlay at Breteuil, only for J uliane to draw a crossbow and attempt to assassinate her father. She was c aptured and confined to the castle, but escaped by leaping from a window i nto the moat below. Some years later Henry was reconciled with his daught er and son-in-law. Legitimate children He had two children by Edith-Matilda, who died in 1118: Matilda, born February 1102, and William Adelin, born November 1103. Disaster struck when William, his only legitimate son, perished in the wre ck of the White Ship on 25 November 1120 off the coast of Normandy. Also a mong the dead were two of Henry's illegitimate children, as well as a niec e, Lucia-Mahaut de Blois. Henry's grieving was intense, and the successi on was in crisis. Second marriage On 29 January 1121, he married Adeliza, daughter of Godfrey I of Leuven, D uke of Lower Lotharingia and Landgrave of Brabant, but there were no child ren from this marriage. Left without male heirs, Henry took the unpreceden ted step of making his barons swear to accept his daughter Empress Matild a, widow of Henry V, the Holy Roman Emperor, as his heir. Death and legacy Henry visited Normandy in 1135 to see his young grandsons, the childr en of Matilda and Geoffrey. He took great delight in his grandchildren, b ut soon quarreled with his daughter and son-in-law and these disputes l ed him to tarry in Normandy far longer than he originally planned. Henry died of food poisoning from eating foul lampreys in December 11 35 at St. Denis le Fermont in Normandy and was buried at Reading Abbey, wh ich he had founded 14 years before. Although Henry's barons had sworn allegiance to his daughter as their quee n, her sex and her remarriage into the House of Anjou, an enemy of the Nor mans, allowed Henry's nephew Stephen of Blois to come to England and cla im the throne with popular support. The struggle between the Empress and Stephen resulted in a long civil w ar known as the Anarchy. The dispute was eventually settled by Stephen's n aming of Matilda's son, Henry, as his heir in 1153. [edit] Illegitimate Children King Henry is famed for holding the record for the largest number of ackno wledged illegitimate children born to any English king, with the number be ing around 20 or 25. He had many mistresses, and identifying which mistre ss is the mother of which child is difficult. His illegitimate offspring f or whom there is documentation are: Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester. His mother was probably a member of the G ai family. Maud FitzRoy, married Conan III, Duke of Brittany Constance FitzRoy, married Roscelin de Beaumont Mabel FitzRoy, married William III Gouet Aline FitzRoy, married Matthieu I of Montmorency Matilda FitzRoy, abbess of Montvilliers. Her mother was Isabel de Beaumon t, sister of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester. William de Tracy, died shortly after King Henry. Gilbert FitzRoy, died after 1142. His mother may have been a sister of Wal ter de Gand. Emma, born circa 1138; married Gui de Laval, Lord Laval. Eustacie, born circa 1084. Married William Gouet II, Lord Montmirial. With Edith Matilda du Perche, married Count Rotrou II of Perche, perished in the wre ck of the White Ship. [edit] With Ansfride Ansfride was born circa 1070. She was married Sir Anskill of Abingdon Abbe y. Juliane de Fontevrault, married Eustace de Pacy. She tried to shoot her fa ther with a crossbow after King Henry allowed her two young daughte rs to be blinded. Fulk FitzRoy, a monk at Abingdon. Richard of Lincoln, perished in the wreck of the White Ship. [edit] With Sibyl Corbet Lady Sybilla Corbet of Alcester was born in 1077 in Alcester, Warwickshir e, England. She married Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Herbert "the Chamberla in" of Winchester and Emma de Blois. She died after 1157 and was also kno wn as Adela (or Lucia) Corbet. Sybil was definitely mother of Sybil and Ra inald, possibly also of William and Rohese. Some sources suggest that the re was another daughter by this relationship, Gundred, but it appears th at she was thought as such because she was a sister of Reginald de Dunstan ville but it appears that that was another person of that name who was n ot related to this family. Sybilla of England, married King Alexander I of Scotland. William Constable, born before 1105. Married Alice (Constable); died aft er 1187. Reginald de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall. Gundred of England (1114 � 1146), married 1130 Henry de la Pomeroy, s on of Joscelin de la Pomerai. Rohese of England, born 1114; married Henry de la Pomeroy. [edit] With Edith FitzForne Robert FitzEdith, Lord Okehampton, (1093 � 1172) married Dame Maud d'Avran ches du Sap. Adeliza FitzEdith. Appears in charters with her brother Robert. [edit] With Princess Nest Nesta verch Rhys of Deheubarth was born circa 1073 of Dynevor, Llandyfeisa nt, Carmarthenshire, Wales. She was married first time Stephen of Cardiga n, Constable of Cardigan. She was married second time Geraldus FitzOth er de Windsor, son of Walter FitzOther of Windsor, Keeper of the Forest a nd Gwladys verch Rhywallon, in 1095. She died circa 1114. Henry FitzRoy, died 1157. With Isabel de Beaumont Isabel (Elizabeth) de Beaumont (after 1102 � after 1172), daughter of Robe rt de Beaumont. She was married Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembrok e, in 1130. She was also known as Isabella de Meulan. Isabel Hedwig of England, born circa 1120. [ References Cross, Arthur Lyon. A History of England and Greater Britain. (New York: M acmillan, 1917). Hollister, Warren C. Henry I (Yale Monarchs Series) Thompson, K. Affairs of State: the illegitimate children of Henry I, 2003 10TH DUKE OF NORMANDY; ACCEDED 8/6/1100 (CROWNED WESTMINSTER); RULED FROM 1100-1135; ALSO LISTED AS "HENRY BEAUCLERC"; DIED FROM EATING TOO MANY LAMPREYS TITLE: King of ENGLAND BURIAL: 4 Jan. 1136, Reading Abbey, Reading, Berkshire, ENGLAND NICK: "Beauclerc" ("Fine Scholar") NOTE: Henry I, the most resilient of the Norman kings (his reign lasted thirty-five years), was nicknamed "Beauclerc" (fine scholar) for his above average education. During his reign, the differences between English and Norman society began to slowly evaporate. Reforms in the royal treasury system became the foundation upon which later kings built. The stability Henry afforded the throne was offset by problems in succession: his only surviving son, William, was lost in the wreck of the White Ship in November 1120. The first years of Henry's reign were concerned with subduing Normandy. William the Conqueror divided his kingdoms between Henry's older brothers, leaving England to William Rufus and Normandy to Robert. Henry inherited no land but received r�P5000 in silver. He played each brother off of the other during their quarrels; both distrusted Henry and subsequently signed a mutual accession treaty barring Henry from the crown. Henry's hope arose when Robert departed for the Holy Land on the First Crusade; should William die, Henry was the obvious heir. Henry was in the woods hunting on the morning of August 2, 1100 when William Rufus was killed by an arrow. His quick movement in securing the crown on August 5 led many to believe he was responsible for his brother's death. In his coronation charter, Henry denounced William's oppressive policies, promising good government in an effort to appease his barons. Robert returned to Normandy a few weeks later but escaped final defeat until the Battle of Tinchebrai in 1106; Robert was captured and lived the remaining twenty-eight years of his life as Henry's prisoner. Henry was drawn into controversy with a rapidly expanding Church. Lay investiture -- the king's selling of clergy appointments -- was heavily opposed by Gregorian reformers in the Church, but was a cornerstone of Norman government. Henry recalled Anselm of Bec to the archbishopric of Canterbury to gain baronial support, but the stubborn Anselm refused to do homage to Henry for his lands. The situation remained unresolved until Pope Paschal II threatened Henry with excommunication in 1105. He reached a compromise with the papacy: Henry rescinded the king's divine authority in conferring sacred offices, but appointees continued to do homage for their fiefs. In practice, it changed little: the king maintained the deciding voice in appointing ecclesiastical offices, but it a marked a point where kingship became purely secular and subservient in the eyes of the Church. By 1106, both the quarrels with the church and the conquest of Normandy were settled and Henry concentrated on expanding royal power. He mixed generosity with violence in motivating allegiance to the crown and appointing loyal and gifted men to administrative positions. By raising men out of obscurity for such appointments, Henry began to rely less on landed barons as ministers and created a loyal bureaucracy. He was deeply involved in continental affairs and therefore spent almost half of his time in Normandy, prompting him to create the position of justiciar - the most trusted of all the king's officials, the justiciar literally ruled in the king's stead. Roger of Salisbury, the first justiciar, was instrumental in organizing an efficient department for collection of royal revenues, the Exchequer. The Exchequer held sessions twice a year for sheriffs and other revenue-collecting officials; these officials appeared before the justiciar, the chancellor, and several clerks and rendered an account of their finances. The Exchequer was an ingenious device for balancing amounts owed versus amounts paid. Henry gained notoriety for sending out court officials to judge local financial disputes (weakening the feudal courts controlled by local lords) and curb errant sheriffs (weakening the power bestowed upon the sheriffs by his father BIBLIOGRAPHY: Burke, Sir John Bernard, Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and Baronetage, The Privy Council, Knghtage and Companionage. 72nd edition. London: Harrison & Sons, 1910. Cokayne, George Edward, Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant. Gloucester: A Sutton, 1982. DeVajay, Szabolcs, Agatha, Mother of Saint Margaret Queen of Scotland, Duquesne Review, vol 7 no 2, Spring 1962, p71-87. Evans, Charles, Royal Bye-Blows I, Additions and corrections. NEHGR v120 (Jul 1966) p230. Holloway, Naomi D, The Genealogy of Mary Wentworth, Who Became the Wife of William Brewster, Revised Edition, October 1969. LDS Film#1738313 item#5 Louda, Jiri, and Michael MacLagan, Heraldry of The Royal Families of Europe. New York: Clarkson Potter, 1981. Morris County Library 929.6094. Moriarty, G Andrews, Plantagenet Ancestry of King Edward III And Queen Philippa. Salt Lake: Mormon Pioneer Genealogical Society, 1985. LDS Film#0441438. nypl#ARF-86-2555. Paget, Gerald, The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. London: Charles Skilton Ltd, 1977. Nypl ARF+ 78-835. Previte-Orton, C. W., The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge: University Press, 1952. Chatham 940.1PRE. Redlich, Marcellus Donald R Von, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants. Order of the Crown of Charlemagne, 1941. Sanders, I. J., English Baronies, A Study of Their Origin and Descent 1086-1327. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. I.1: Die frankischen Konige und die Konige und Kaiser, Stammesherzoge, Kurfursten, Markgrafen und Herzoge des Heiligen Romischen Reiches Deutscher Nation. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1998. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. I: Die Stammesherzoge, Die Weltlichenkurforsten, Die Kaiserlichen, Koniglichen und Grossherzoglichen Familien. Marburg: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1980. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. II: Die Ausserdeutschen Staaten Die Regierenden Hauser der Ubrigen Staaten Europas. Marburg: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1984. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. III.2 (#201-#400): Nichtstandesgemasse und Illegitime Nachkommen der Regierenden Hauser Europas. Marburg: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1983. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. III.4 (#601-#820): Das Feudale Frankreich und sein Einfluss auf die Welt des Mittelalters. Marburg: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1989. Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. XIV: Les Familles Feodales de France II. Marburg: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1991. Sheppard, Walter Lee, Royal Bye-Blows: The Illegitimate Children of the English Kings from William I to Edward III, in NEHGR v119 (Apr 1965) pp94-102. Tapsell, R. F., Monarchs, Rulers, Dynasties and Kingdoms of the World. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1983. Wagner, Anthony, Pedigree and Progress, Essays in the Genealogical Interpretation of History, London, Philmore, 1975. Rutgers Alex CS4.W33. Watney, Vernon James, The Wallop Family and their Ancestry, Oxford:John Johnson, 1928. LDS Film#1696491 items 6-9. Weir, Alison, Britain's Royal Families, The Complete Genealogy, London: Bodley Head, 1989. Nypl ARF 89-26908 Weis, Frederick L, Magna Charta Sureties 1215: The Barons Named in the Magna Charta and Some of Their Descendants. 4th Ed. Baltimore: Gen Pub Co, 1991. Weis, Frederick Lewis, Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, David Faris, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to America before 1700, 7th Edition, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co, 1992. RESEARCH NOTES: 1100-1135: King of England [Ref: Weis AR7 #1, Weis AR7 #121, Holloway WENTWORTH p8] 1106-1135: Duke of Normandy [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p203] crowned Aug 5 1100 [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p24] agreed to give William de Warrenne one of his daughters in marriage, but asked approval of Archbishop Anselme since the parties were "related in the 4th degree on one side and the 6th degree on the other," which Anselme refused, so the marriage never took place. [Ref: Sheppard RoyalByeBlowsI p97] died in the night Dec 1-2 1135 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p11] Henry was in reality a usurper. He imprisoned his older bro ther, Robert in Cardiff Castle in Wales, and it is said h e had Robert's eyes put out. Henry reigned thirty-five year s, not only over England, but over one third of France. I n 1120 the White Ship went down on a hidden rock in the Eng lish Channel with the Crown Prince on board and it is sai d Henry I is never known to have smiled again. He had onl y one child left, Maude-Matilda, then a widow of the Germa n Emperor Henry V. For political reasons she was next marri ed to Geoffrey of Anjou, a boy of sixteen, ten years her ju nior. After the death of Henry I there was civil war betwee n Matilda and her nephew Stephen, who got the throne for ni neteen years. At one point in this contest Matilda had to e scape from the Robert Doyley tower of Oxford Castle by slid ing down a rope with gloved hands, the rope held by her fav orite knight, Alain. She, with a few others dressed in whit e to avoid detection, crossed in the snowy night over the f rozen Thames. The condition of the English people was deplo rable during the reign of Henry I, owing to the blood-curdl ing cruelty of the Barons. Henry established a vigorous pol ice system to check this, and tried to stop counterfeitin g the money by mutilations. He oppressed his people by taxation. Henry I was born in the year 1068---a factor he himself regarded as highly significant, for he was the only son of th e Conqueror born after the conquest of England, and to Henr y this meant he was heir to the throne. He was not an attra ctive proposition: he was dissolute to a degree, producin g at least a score of bastards; but far worse he was prone to sadistic cruelty---on one occasion, for example, personally punishing a rebellious burgher by throwing him from the walls of his town. At the death of William the Conqueror, Henry was left no lands, merely 5,000 pounds of silver. With these he bought lands from his elder brother Robert Curthose, Duke of Normand y, only to see them taken back again a few years later by R obert, in unholy alliance with his brother William Rufus. Henry could do little to avenge such treatment, but in Engl and he found numerous barons who were tired of the exaction s and ambitions of their king. He formed alliances with som e of these, notably with the important De Clare family. He and some of the De Clares were with William Rufus on his last hunting expedition, and it is thought that the king' s death was the result of Henry's plotting. Certainly he moved fast to take advantage of it; leaving Ru fus's body unattended in the woods, he swooped down on Winc hester to take control of the treasury. Two days later he w as in Westminster, being crowned by the Bishop of London. H is speed is understandable when one realises that his elde r brother, Robert [Curthose], was returning from the crusad e, and claimed, with good reason, to be the true heir. Henry showed great good sense in his first actions as King . He arrested Ranulph Flambard, William's tax-gatherer, an d recalled Anselm, the exiled Archbishop. Furthermore, he i ssued a Charter of Liberties which promised speedy redres s of grievances, and a return to the good government of th e Conqueror. Putting aside for the moment his many mistress es, he married the sister of the King of Scots, who was des cended from the royal line of Wessex; and lest the Norman b arons should think him too pro-English in this action, he c anged her name from Edith to Matilda. No one could claim th at he did not aim to please. In 1101 Robert Curthose invaded, but Henry met him at Alton , and persuaded him to go away again by promising him an an nuity of �2,000. He had no intention of keeping up the paym ents, but the problem was temporarily solved. He now felt strong enough to move against dissident baron s who might give trouble in the future. Chief amongst thes e was the vicious Robert of Bell�eme, Earl of Shrewsbury, wh om Henry had known for many years as a dangerous troublemak er. He set up a number of charges against him in the king' s court, making it plain that if he appeared for trial he w ould be convicted and imprisoned. Thus Robert and his colle agues were forced into rebellion at a time not of their own choosing, were easily defeated and sent scuttling back to Normandy. In Normandy Robert Curthose began to wreak his wrath on al l connected with his brother, thus giving Henry an excellen t chance to retaliate with charges of misgovernment and inv ade. He made two expeditions in 1104-5, before the great expedition of 1106 on which Robert was defeated at the hour-long battle of Tinchebrai, on the anniversary of Hastings. No one had expected such an easy victory, but Henry took adv antage of the state of shock resulting from the battle to annex Normandy. Robert was imprisoned (in some comfort, it be said); he lived on for 28 more years, ending up in Cardiff castle whiling away the long hours learning Welsh. His son William Clito remained a free agent, to plague Henry for most of the rest of his reign. In England the struggle with Anselm over the homage of bish ops ran its course until the settlement of 1107. In matter s of secular government life was more simple: Henry had fou nd a brilliant administrator, Roger of Salisbury, to act a s Justiciar for him. Roger had an inventive mind, a keen gr asp of affairs, and the ability to single out young men o f promise. He quickly built up a highly efficient team of a dministrators, and established new routines and forms of or ganisation within which they could work. To him we owe th e Exchequer and its recording system of the Pipe Rolls, th e circuits of royal justiciars spreading the king's peace , and the attempts at codification of law. Henry's good rel ationships with his barons, and with the burgeoning new tow ns owed much to skilful administration. Certainly he was ab le to gain a larger and more reliable revenue this way tha n by the crude extortion his brother had used. In 1120 came the tragedy of the White Ship. The court was r eturning to England, and the finest ship in the land was fi lled with its young men, including Henry's son and heir Wil liam. Riotously drunk, they tried to go faster and faster , when suddenly the ship foundered. All hands except a butc her of Rouen were lost, and England was without an heir. Henry's only legitimate child was Matilda, but she was marr ied to the Emperor Henry V of Germany, and so could not suc ceed. But in 1125 her husband died, and Henry brought her h ome and forced the barons to swear fealty to her---though t hey did not like the prospect of a woman ruler. Henry the n married her to Geoffrey of Anjou, the Normans' traditiona l enemy, and the barons were less happy---especially when t he newly-weds had a terrible row, and Geoffrey ordered he r out of his lands. In 1131 Henry, absolutely determined, f orced the barons to swear fealty once more, and the fact th at they did so is testimoney of his controlling power. Mati lda and Geoffrey were reunited, and in 1133 she produce d a son whom she named for his grandfather. If only Henry c ould live on until his grandson was old enough to rule, al l would be well. But in 1135, against doctor's orders, he ate a hearty mea l of lampreys, got acute indigestion, which turned into fev er, and died. He was buried at his abbey in Reading---some said in a silver coffin, for which there was an unsuccessful search at the Dissolution. [Source: Who's Who in the Middle Ages, John Fines, Barnes & Noble Books, New York, 1995] Reigned 1100-1135. Duke of Normandy 1106-1135. He reign is notable for important legal and administrative reforms, and for the final resolution of the investiture controversy. Abroad, he waged several campaigns in order to consolidate and expand his continental possessions. Was so hated be his brothers that they vowed to disinherit him. In 1106 he captured Robert and held him 'til he died. He proved to be a hard but just rultes. He apparently died from over eating Lampreys! Hull University, Royal Genealogy credits him with 29 children by one wife (4) and various mistresses.[ Tree #28319.FTW] Weis' "Ancestral Roots. . ." (1:23), (33A:23), (50:26), (98:25), (118:25), (119:25), (121:25), (121B:26), (124:25), (149:24), (153:24A), (262:27). Reigned 1100-1135. Duke of Normandy 1106-1135. His reign is notable for important legal and administrative reforms, and for the final resolution of the investiture controversy. Abroad, he waged several campaigns in order to consolidate and expand his continental possessions. Was so hated by his brothers that they vowed to disinherit him. In 1106 he captured Robert and held him til he died. He proved to be a hard but just ruler. He aparently died from over eating Lampreys! Henry I (of England) (1068-1135), third Norman king of England (1100-1135), fourth son of William the Conqueror. Henry was born in Selby. Because his father, who died in 1087, left him no land, Henry made several unsuccessful attempts to gain territories on the Continent. On the death of his brother William II in 1100, Henry took advantage of the absence of another brother-Robert, who had a prior claim to the throne-to seize the royal treasury and have himself crowned king at Westminster. Henry subsequently secured his position with the nobles and with the church by issuing a charter of liberties that acknowledged the feudal rights of the nobles and the rights of the church. In 1101 Robert, who was duke of Normandy, invaded England, but Henry persuaded him to withdraw by promising him a pension and military aid on the Continent. In 1102 Henry put down a revolt of nobles, who subsequently took refuge in Normandy, where they were aided by Robert. By defeating Robert at Tinchebray, France, in 1106, Henry won Normandy. During the rest of his reign, however, he constantly had to put down uprisings that threatened his rule in Normandy. The conflict between Henry and Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, over the question of lay investiture (the appointment of church officials by the king), was settled in 1107 by a compromise that left the king with substantial control in the matter. Because he had no surviving male heir, Henry was forced to designate his daughter Matilda as his heiress. After his death on December 1, 1135, at Lyons-la-F�oret, Normandy, however, Henry's nephew, Stephen of Blois, usurped the throne, plunging the country into a protracted civil war that ended only with the accession of Matilda's son, Henry II, in 1154. ["Henry I (of England)," Microsoft(R) Encarta(R) 98 Encyclopedia} Henry I "Beaucleric" England: Taken from the book MEDIEVAL HISTORY & CIVILIZATION by Daniel D. McGarry. The hard William II, Rufus,as King of England, was in part a reflection of his father, (William the Conqueror), King of England, whose policies of strong rule and centralization he continued. But unlike his father, Rufus was erratic, narrow, and selfish, fond of crude companions, impolitic, and imprudent. William II became an arbitrary despot, hated by nobles and commoners alike. A common cause of complaint was his extortions, partly occasioned by the need to pay the numerous foreign mercenaries who were the mainstay of his power. He was also hated for his severity and cruelty. He sequestered accustomed revenues of the Church, and quarreled with Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury over Church appointments, which he insisted on controlling despite the Gregorian reform movement. Eventually Anselm went into voluntary exile rather than submit to the young tyrant (1097). In 1100, while hunting in the forest, the red-haired despot was "accidently" killed by an arrow shot through his back. No investigation was made and no punishment was meted out. HENRY BEAUCLERC, the youngest, but the most intelligent and able of the Conqueror's three sons, seized the throne, disregarding the superior claim of his older brother, Robert Curthose of Normandy, who was still on Crusade. HENRY I (ruled 1100-1135) was known as "Beauclerc" ("Fine Cleric" or "Good Scholar"); he had originally been intended for the service of the Church and had received a good education. Henry was calculating, patient, and persistent, and preferred peaceful to violent means. To solicit general favor, Henry issued a coronation charter, in which he promised to correct abuses and restore law and order. He also married the Scottish Princess Edith, who was descended for the Anglo-Saxon royal house. When threatened by a rebellion and invasion led by his elder brother Robert in 1101, Henry bought him off by the promise of an annual pension of 2,000 lb. (3,000 marks). But as he was determined to bring Normandy back into direct royal control, Henry intrigued and distributed bribes to form alliances with Robert's neighbors and to win over Robert's subjects. Finally Henry invaded Normandy, defeated Robert at Tinchebrai (1106), and subsequently kept him a prisoner in various castles until his death in 1134. HENRY I furthered the organization of the English government by his establishment of the Exchequer and by his institution of itinerant justices. The handling and supervision of the royal finances was at first one of several functions of the smaller (petit) 'curia regis' (court of the king). Under Henry, however, the Exchequer, so called from the checkered cloth on which sheriffs rendered their accounts, went "out of court" and became a separate department. Henry's institution of itinerant royal justices ("justices in eyre") set up a rude system of circuit courts, and contributed much to the enhancement of royal income and power, as well as to the administration of justice. Although Henry I had twenty-two children, only two of them, William Aetheling and Mathilda, were legitimate. After William Aetheling drowned during a shipwreck while en route from Normandy to England in 1120, the grief-stricken Henry decided to make his daughter, Mathilda, his successor. As a measure of security, Henry married Mathilda, widow of Emperor Henry V of Germany, to the strong Count Geoffrey the Handsome of Anjou, and persuaded the English barons to agree to her succession. But the "imperious" Mathilda alienated many of the barons, and, following the death of Henry I, they collaborated in the accession of Stephen of Blois. Stephen was the son of the Conqueror's daughter Adela, who had married the Count of Blois. Maloney, Hendrick & Others - J. H. Maloney
b. Note:   BI118722
Note:   Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: ES II #81, Louda RoyalFamEurope #12, Louda RoyalFamEurope #2, Moriarty Plantagenet p13, Paget HRHCharles p11, Paget HRHCharles p168, Paget HRHCharles p55, Redlich CharlemagneDesc p184, Weis AR7 #121, Weis AR7 #1] 1070 [Ref: Holloway WENTWORTH p8, Watney WALLOP #740, Watney WALLOP #886, Weis AR7 #33A], place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p11], parents: [Ref: CMH p600, ES II #81, Holloway WENTWORTH p8, Louda RoyalFamEurope #2, Moriarty Plantagenet p13, Paget HRHCharles p10, Paget HRHCharles p12, Paget HRHCharles p168, Paget HRHCharles p55, Redlich CharlemagneDesc p184, Wagner PedigreeProgress #47, Watney WALLOP #740, Weis AR7 #121, Weis MC #161], father: [Ref: Louda RoyalFamEurope #1, Tapsell Dynasties p203]
c. Note:   DI118722
Note:   Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p24, ES II #81, ES II #89, Holloway WENTWORTH p8, Moriarty Plantagenet p13, Paget HRHCharles p12, Paget HRHCharles p168, Paget HRHCharles p55, Redlich CharlemagneDesc p184, Watney WALLOP #740, Watney WALLOP #886, Weis AR7 #121] 1-2 Dec 1135 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p173] 1135 [Ref: CMH p600, ES I #95, Louda RoyalFamEurope #12, Louda RoyalFamEurope #2, Tapsell Dynasties p203, Weis AR7 #33A] night of 1-2 Dec 1135 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p11], place: [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p24] Sources with Inaccurate Information: date: 1 Dec 1035 (sic) [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p64]
d. Note:   XI118722
Note:   Sources for this Information: place: [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p24, Paget HRHCharles p12]
e. Note:   NF524136389
Note:   REFN11940
f. Note:   NF4262
Note:   Sources for this Information: child: [Ref: ES III.2 #354, Paget HRHCharles p12, Sheppard RoyalByeBlowsI p96, Weis AR7 #33A]
g. Note:   NF28332
Note:   Sources for this Information: names: Kg Heinrich I v England & Elisabeth, Maitrosse [Ref: ES III.4 #700], child: [Ref: ES III.2 #354, Paget HRHCharles p12, Sheppard RoyalByeBlowsI p96]
h. Note:   NF28338
Note:   Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p24, Paget HRHCharles p11] 1120 [Ref: Weis AR7 #149] 1121 [Ref: Louda RoyalFamEurope #2] 29 Jan 1121 [Ref: Weis AR7 #1] 29.I 1129 [Ref: ES I #95] 29.I oder 2.II 1121 [Ref: ES II #81] first marriage of Adeliza [Ref: CP I p235, Sanders Baronies p70] second marriage of Henry and first of Adela [Ref: CMH p600], place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p11], names: [Ref: Moriarty Plantagenet p154, Wagner PedigreeProgress #55] Sources with Inaccurate Information: date: 20 Jan 1121 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p57]
i. Note:   NF524136388
Note:   REFN11939
j. Note:   NF28331
Note:   Sources for this Information: child: [Ref: ES III.2 #354, Sheppard RoyalByeBlowsI p96]
k. Note:   NF28333
Note:   Sources for this Information: date: verbinding mit Edith 1130 [Ref: ES III.2 #354], child: [Ref: ES III.2 #354, Weir RoyalFam p49] is NOT responsible for the content of the GEDCOMs uploaded through the WorldConnect Program. The creator of each GEDCOM is solely responsible for its content.