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Family
Marriage: Children:
  1. Gisele Capet: Birth: 969 in Paris, Ile-de-France, France. Death: 1002 in Ponthieu, Picardie, France

  2. Hedwig Capet: Birth: 972 in Mons, Hainaut, Belgium. Death: Aft 1013

  3. Robert Capet: Birth: 27 Mar 972 in Orl�eans, Loiret, Centre, France. Death: 20 Jul 1031 in Meulan Castle, Meulan, Aquitaine, France


Notes
a. Note:   Reign: 3 July 987 ? 24 October 996 Coronation: 3 July 987, Noyons Titles: Duke of the Franks, Count of Paris (956 ? 987) Hugh Capet (c 940 ? 24 October 996) was the first King of France of the eponymous Capetian dynasty from his election to succeed the Carolingian Louis V in 987 until his death. Hugh Capet descended from the Robertians and was the son of Hugh the Great, Duke of France, and Hedwige of Saxony, daughter of the German king Henry the Fowler, Hugh was born about 940. His paternal family, the Robertians, were powerful landowners in the �Ile-de-France. His grandfather had been King Robert I and his grandmother Beatrice was a Carolingian, a daughter of Herbert I of Vermandois. King Odo was his great uncle and King Rudolph Odo's son-in-law. Hugh was born into a well-connected and powerful family with many ties to the reigning nobility of Europe. But for all this, Hugh's father was never king. When Rudolph died in 936, Hugh the Great organized the return of Louis d'Outremer, son of Charles the Simple, from his exile at the court of Athelstan of England. Hugh's motives are unknown, but it is presumed that he acted to forestall Rudolph's brother and successor as Duke of Burgundy, Hugh the Blackfrom taking the French throne, or to prevent it from falling into the grasping hands of Herbert II of Vermandois or William Longsword, Count of Rouen. In 956, Hugh inherited his father's estates and became one of the most powerful nobles in the much-reduced West Frankish kingdom. However, as he was not yet an adult, his uncle Bruno, Archbishop of Cologne, acted as regent. Young Hugh's neighbours made the most of the opportunity. Theobald I of Blois, a former vassal of Hugh the Great, took the counties of Chartres and Ch�ateaudun. Further south, on the border of the kingdom, Fulk II of Anjou, another former client of Hugh the Great, carved out a principality at Hugh's expense and that of the Bretons. The kingdom in which Hugh grew up, and of which he would one day be king, bore no resemblance to modern France. Hugh's predecessors did not call themselves rois de France ("Kings of France"), and that title was not used until thetime of his distant descendant Philip the Fair (died 1314). Kings ruled as rex Francorum ("King of the Franks") and the lands over which they ruled comprised only a very small part of the former Carolingian Empire. The eastern Frankish lands, the Holy Roman Empire (Ben M. Angel notes: theHRE was created by Hugh's grandfather, Henry the Fowler - it was a successor state to the Kingdom of the Eastern Franks, and an entity separate of that of Charlemagne, who considered himself Emperor of the Romans, not Holy Roman Emperor), were ruled by the Ottonian dynasty, represented by Hugh's first cousin Otto II and then by Otto's son, Otto III. The lands south of the river Loire had largely ceased to be part of the West Frankish kingdom in the years after Charles the Simple was deposed in 922. The Duchy of Normandy and the Duchy of Burgundy were largely independent, andBrittany entirely so, although from 956 Burgundy was ruled by Hugh's brothers Odo and Henry. From 978 to 986, Hugh Capet allied himself with the German emperors Otto II and Otto III and with Archbishop Adalberon of Reims to dominate the Carolingian king, Lothair. By 986, he was king in all but name. After Lothair and hisson died in early 987, the archbishop of Reims and Gerbert of Aurillac convened an assembly of nobles to elect Hugh Capet as their king. In front of an electoral assembly at Senlis, Adalberon gave a stirring oration and pleaded to the nobles: "Crown the Duke. He is most illustrious by his exploits, his nobility, his forces. The throne is not acquired by hereditary right; no one should be raised to it unless distinguished not only for nobility of birth, but for the goodness of his soul." He was elected and crowned rex Francorum at Noyon in Picardy on 3 July 987, by the prelate of Reims, the first of the house that would later bear his name to rule France. Immediately after his coronation, Hugh began to push for the coronation of his son Robert. Hugh's own claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the countrynecessitated two kings should he die while on expedition. Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to contol the nobility. Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the pretension of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain. Robert was eventually crowned on 30 December that same year. Hugh Capet possessed minor properties near Chartres and Angers. Between Paris and Orl�eans he possessed towns and estates amounting to approximately 400 square miles (1,000 km�2). His authority ended there, and if he dared travel outside his small area, he risked being captured and held for ransom, though, as God's anointed, his life was largely safe. Indeed, there was a plot in 993, masterminded by the Bishop of Laon and Odo I of Blois, to deliver Hugh Capet into the custody of Otto III. The plot failed, but the fact that no one was punished illustrates how tenuous his hold on power was. Beyond his power base, in the rest of France, there were still as many codes of law as there were fiefdoms. The "country" operated with 150 different forms of currency and at least a dozen languages. Uniting all this into one cohesive unit was a formidable task and a constant struggle between those who wore the crown of France and its feudal lords. As such, Hugh Capet's reign was marked by numerous power struggles with the vassals on the borders of the Seine and the Loire. While Hugh Capet's military power was limited and he had to seek military aid from Richard I of Normandy, his unanimous election as king gave him great moral authority and influence. Ad�emar de Chabannes records, probably apocryphally, that during an argument with the Count of Auvergne, Hugh demanded of him: "Who made you count?" The count riposted: "Who made you king?" Hugh made Arnulf Archbishop of Reims in 988, even though Arnulf was the nephew of the his bitter rival, Charles of Lorraine. Charles thereupon succeeded in capturing Reims and took the archbishop prisoner. Hugh, however, considered Arnulf a turncoat and demanded his deposition by Pope John XV. The turn of events outran the messages, when Hugh captured both Charles and Arnulf and convoked a synod at Reims in June 991, which obediently deposed Arnulf and chose as his successor Gerbert of Aurillac. These proceedings were repudiated by Rome, although a second synod had ratified the decrees issued at Reims. John XV summoned the French bishops to hold an independent synod outside the King's realm, at Aachen, to reconsider the case. When they refused,he called them to Rome, but they protested that the unsettled conditions en route and in Rome made that impossible. The Pope then sent a legate with instructions to call a council of French and German bishops at Mousson, where only the German bishops appeared, the French being stopped on the way by Hugh and Robert. Through the exertions of the legate, the deposition of Arnulf was finally pronounced illegal. After Hugh's death, Arnulf was released from his imprisonment and soon restored to all his dignities. Hugh Capet died on 24 October 996 in Paris and was interred in the Saint Denis Basilica. His son Robert continued to reign. Most historians regard the beginnings of modern France with the coronation of Hugh Capet. This is because, as Count of Paris, he made it his power center. The monarch began a long process of exerting control of the rest of the country from there. He is regarded as the founder of the Capetian dynasty. The direct Capetians, or the House of Capet, ruled France from 987 to 1328; thereafter, the Kingdom was ruled by collateral branches of the dynasty. All French Kings down to Louis Philippe, and royal pretenders since then, have been members of the dynasty (the Bonapartes styled themselves emperors rather than kings). Today, the Capetian dynasty is still the head of state in the kingdom of Spain (in the person of the double Bourbon Juan Carlos) and the duchy of Luxembourg, being the oldest continuously reigning dynasty in Europe. -------------------- There is no information on where Hugh Capet was born. If to try and determine it on our own, these are the events around the time of Hugh Capet's birth: 936: January, Rudolf/Raoul, Duke of Burgundy dies. Hugh refuses the throne of the King of the Franks, supporting the candidacy of Louis d'Outremer IV instead. (Hugh's residence: Laon.) 936: June 19, Louis IV is coroneted King of the Franks at Laon by Artaud, Archbishop of Rheims. 936: July 2, Heinrich I of Saxony, considered to be the father of the Holy Roman Empire (though this name doesn't appear for another 500 years), dies at the family palace in Memleben, Thuringia, of a stroke. His son Otto I becomes Emperor of the Eastern Franks (described 500 years later as the first Holy Roman Emperor). He spends much of his early years putting down rebellions. 936: July 25, Louis IV appoints Hugh the Great as Duke of the Franks. Hugh was also made Comte d'Auxerre around this time (residence still Laon). 936: December 26, Louis IV clarifies that Hugh the Great is his second in command. 937 or 938: Hugh marries Hedwig of Saxony, daughter of the first King of Germany Heinrich I the Fowler of Saxony. Louis IV, in contrast, accepts the fealty of Gilbert of Lorraine/Lotharingia, with whom he promises more autonomy. This triggers eventual war between the East and West Franks, and stress between the Louis IV and his Duke, Hugh. 938 (at least 9 months after their marriage), Hedwig gives birth to their first-born, Beatrice. 939: Hugh Capet likely conceived before the final break between Hugh the Great and Louis IV and resulting military campaigns. (Residency likely Laon at conception, but may not have remained Laon throughout the pregnancy, presuming 940 birth year.) 939: October 2, Gilbert is defeated at the Battle of Andernach, and is drowned while trying to flee across the Rhine. This ends Louis IV's campaign to obtain Lorraine/Lotharingia, and opens his kingdom to attack. Henry I of Bavaria, seeing the writing on the wall, leaves Louis IV's side and over the next two years reconciles with Emperor Otto, and is given Lorraine/Lotharingia. Henry later breaks with Otto and is forced from his new duchy. 940: By this time, Louis IV turns on Hugh the Great (or perhaps the other way around). Louis IV fears that Hugh holds the real power as their interests become opposite to each other. Louis raises an army and attacks Hugh, but is defeated near Rheims. Hugh sides with the Emperor Otto I as he invades from Lorraine to punish Louis. (Residence: maybe Laon, but unclear.) 942: Emperor Otto I advances on the Seine River, and forces Louis IV to cede control of Burgundy. (Residence: uncertain.) 943: Hugh the Great establishes his authority over Burgundy by agreement with Otto I. Emma, Hugh Capet's younger sister, is born around this time. (Residency, likely in Burgundy.) 945: Louis IV is captured by Vikings (Normans), who hand him over to Hugh the Great. Under pressure from the Holy Roman Emperor, Hugh the Great releases King Louis IV, but only on the condition that he receives Laon. (Residency likely at this time Laon.) Conclusion: It could be that Hugh Capet was born in Laon, but there is nothing that confirms this, and he could have been born in another location (such as somewhere within Eastern Franconia - his father Hugh the Great's ally at the time). -------------------- Uncertain of source (it's not Spanish Wikipedia), Biography of Hugh Capet in Spanish: Hugo Capeto (nacido hacia el a�no 940 y muerto en Les Juifs, Chartres, el 24 de octubre de 996) fue rey de Francia entre 987 y 996, inici�o la Dinast�ia de los Capetos. Hijo de Hugo el Grande, duque de Francia, perteneciente a la Casa Robertina. En 960 sucedi�o a su padre como duque de Francia, conde de Orleans y abad laico de Saint-Martin de Tours, de Marmoutier, de Saint-Germain-des-Pr�es y de Saint-Denis. Se cas�o el a�no 968 con Adelaida de Aquitania. De este matrimonio nacieron cuatro hijos: 1. Gisela (970 - 1000), casada con Hugo I de Ponthieu; 2. Edwige (969 - 1013), casada hacia el 996 con Rainiero IV de Hainaut y posteriormente con Hugo III de Dasbourg; Roberto el Piadoso (972 - 1031), rey de Francia con el nombre de Roberto II; 3. Adelaida (973 - 1068). En el a�no 978 estuvo al frente de la defensa de la ciudad de Par�is frente a un ataque del emperador alem�an Ot�on II. Al morir el rey Luis V el Holgaz�an, �ultimo en la l�inea directa de los carolingios, fue elegido rey de Francia por una asamblea reunida en Senlis. Fue proclamado rey en Noyon y consagrado en Reims el 3 de julio de 987, venciendo la oposici�on de Carlos, duque de la Baja Lorena, t�io de su predecesor. De la frase roi �a la chape (por su investidura de abad) es llamado el Capeto. En el mismo a�no consagr�o a su hijo Roberto para asegurarle la sucesi�on. Sus descendientes reinar�ian en Francia en forma directa hasta 1848, pues si bien la rama principal de los Capetos se extinguir�ia en 1328, las dinast�ias subsiguientes, (Valois, Borbones y Orleans), descienden asimismo por l�inea paterna directa de Hugo Capeto. Le gustaba distinguirse de los caballeros de la �epoca llevando una capa de corte peculiar. Por ello se le comenz�o a llamar Capeto, que significa "el de la capa". Con el tiempo se convirti�o en apellido. -------------------- Notes: 1. Capet is a byname of uncertain meaning distinguishing him from his father Hugh the Great. Folk etymology connects it with cape, other suggested etymologies derive it from terms for chief, mocker or big head. See further fr:Capet (nom). His father's byname is presumed to have been retrospective, Latin: Hugo Magnus, meaning Hugh the Elder, this Hugh being Hugh the Younger, Capet being a 12th century addition; James, p. 183. 2. ^ For a fuller explanation of the descent and relationships of Hugh, see the genealogical tables in Rich�e, Les Carolingiens, pp. 399 ff. References 1. Bordenove, Georges. Les Rois qui ont fait la France: Hugues Capet, le Fondateur. Paris: Marabout, 1986. ISBN 2-501-01099-X 2. Gauvard, Claude. La France au Moyen �Age du Ve au XVe si�ecle. Paris: PUF, 1996. 2-13-054205-0 3. James, Edward. The Origins of France: From Clovis to the Capetians 500-1000. London: Macmillan, 1982. ISBN 0312588623 4. Rich�e, Pierre. Les Carolingiens: Une famille qui fit l'Europe. Paris: Hachette, 1983. 2-012-78551-0 5. Theis, Laurent. Histoire du Moyen �Age fran�cais: Chronologie comment�ee 486-1453. Paris: Perrin, 1992. 2-87027-587-0 6. Lewis, Anthony W. "Anticipatory Association of the Heir in Early Capetian France." The American Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 4. (Oct., 1978), pp 906-927. -------------------- From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on France Capetian Kings: http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAPET.htm#_Toc154137000 HUGUES, son of HUGUES ?le Grand? Duc des Francs & his third wife Hedwig of Saxony ([940]-villa "Les Juifs", near Prasville, Eure-et-Loire 24 Oct 996, bur �eglise de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). The Historia Francorum Senonensis names (in order) "Hugo, Otto et Heinricus" as the three sons of "Hugo Magnus dux Francorum?ex filia Odonis regis"[116]. Flodoard names "Hugonem et Oddonem clericum" as brothers of "Otto filius Hugonis", when he records that the rectores of Burgundy named them as his successors[117]. Rodulfus Glauber names "Hugoni, Parisiensis ducis filio?illius Magni Hugonis", specifying that his mother was "Ottone?sorore"[118]. His father named Richard Comte [de Normandie] as Hugues's guardian in 956, the arrangement being confirmed by Richard's betrothal to the sister of Hugues. He was installed as Duc des Francs/dux Francorum by Lothaire King of France in 960. By 974, Hugues had become effective leader of France under King Lothaire, and headed the army which retook the kingdom of Lotharingia from Otto II King of Germany in 978[119]. He was elected HUGUES "Capet" King of France by an assembly of nobles at Senlis 29 May 987, after the accidental death of Louis V King of France. He was consecrated at Noyon 1 Jun 987. Charles Duke of Lotharingia, the late king's uncle, opposed the accession of King Hugues. He captured Laon [May] 988, and Reims [Aug/Sep] 989, with the help of his nephew Arnoul Archbishop of Reims, but was finally captured at Laon in 991[120]. The Historia Francorum Senonensis records the death in 998 of "Hugo rex" and his burial "in basilica beati Dyonisii martiris Parisius"[121]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "IX Kal Nov" of "Hugo rex"[122]. m ([968]) ADELAIS, daughter of --- ([950/55]-15 Jun [1004]). There is uncertainty about the origin of Adelais. According to the 11th century Translation to Saint-Magloire[123], she was ADELAIS de Poitou, daughter of GUILLAUME III ?T�ete d'Etoupes? Duke of Aquitaine [GUILLAUME I Comte de Poitou] & his wife Adela [Gerloc] de Normandie. This Poitevin origin is also suggested by Richer when he records that King Robert "ob nepotem suum Wilelmum" besieged "in Aquitania?Hildebertum"[124]. It is assumed that such a relationship between King Robert and Duke Guillaume would be through the king's mother as no family connection through his father has been established. The Chronicle of Ademar de Chabannes, on the other hand, recounts the dispute between "Dux Aquitanorum Willelmus" and King Hugues, as well as the subsequent peace agreed between the parties in 990, without mentioning that the duke was the king's brother-in-law[125], all the more surprising if the Poitevin origin is correct as Ademar concentrates on Poitevin affairs and also includes genealogical details in his narrative. Helgaud's Vita Roberti Regis names "Rex Francorum Rotbertus?patre Hugone, matre Adhelaide", specifying that "ab Ausonis partibus descenderat"[126]. Settipani equates "Ausonia" with Rome or Italy[127], although no other referenceto an Italian origin for Adelais has yet been identified. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the mother of "rex Francorum Robertus" as "superiorem regum Anglie soror"[128] but it is difficult to see to whom this could refer or how it could be correct. The paucity of references in contemporary sources to the wife of Hugues Capet and her origin contrasts sharply with the frequent references to his mother and to the wives of his son King Robert II. This suggests that the background of Queen Adelais may have been obscure and that her family had little political influence at the time, although this would be surprising as her husband was already enjoying a position of some power at the Carolingian court at the time of his marriage. Maybe her family was prominent when the couple married but suffered a subsequent decline by the time her husband was elected king. Nevertheless, an Aquitainian marriage would have fitted the political circumstances of the time. After several decades of dispute between the Capet and Poitou families, a permanent peace appears to have been established from about the time the marriage took place[129]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XVII Kal Jul" of "Adelaidis regina"[130]. [Mistress (1): ---. The name of King Hugues's possible mistress is not known.] King Hugues & his wife had three children: 1. GISELA de France ([970][131]-). m (before 987) HUGUES ---, son of --- (-4 Jul [1000]). Hugues Capet King of France separated Abbeville, Ancre and Domart from the Abbaye de Saint-Riquier and gave them to Hugues, who was knownas the avou�e de Saint-Riquier[133]. These territories became the foundation of the county of Ponthieu. 2. HEDWIGE [Avoie] de France ([969][134]-after 1013). Her brother gave her the towns of Couvin, Fraisne, N�ime, Eve and Bens [all now in Belgium] as her dowry on her marriage. m ([996]) REGINAR IV Comte de Hainaut, son of REGINAR [III] Graf im Maasgau & his wife Adela [von Dachsburg] (after 947-1013). 3. ROBERT de France (Orl�eans ([27 Mar] 972-Ch�ateau de Melun 20 Jul 1031, bur �eglise de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). He was consecrated Associate-King 25 Dec 987, Cathedral of Sainte-Croix d?Orl�eans. He succeeded his father in 996 as ROBERT II "le Pieux" King of France. King Hugues had one possible illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 4. [GAUZLIN (-1030). Ademar refers to "abbatem Gauzlenum" being ordained at "sancti Benedicti" by "Rex Rotbertus". The text continues by explaining that he was "nobilissimi Francorum principis filius manzer, a puero in monasterio sancti Benedicti nutritus", specifying that "rex supra scriptus [=Rotbertus]" later installed him as "archiepiscopum Bituricensibus" after the death of Archbishop Dagbert[143]. These oblique references have been interpreted asmeaning that the father of Gauzlin was King Hugues "Capet"[144], although this is not beyond doubt. Kerrebrouck also casts doubt on this assumed paternity of Gauzlin[145]. Archbishop of Bourges. Abb�e de Fleury, Saint-Beno�it-sur-Loire.] The precise relationship between the following person and the family of the Capetian kings has not been established. It is possible that he was related through the wife of King Hugues Capet. 1. INGO (-29 Jan 1026). Succeeded as abbot of ?sancti Petri Vivi? in 1015[146]. -------------------- Hugues Capet (n�e vers 940, mort au lieu-dit , pr�es de Prasville (Eure-et-Loir) le 24 octobre 996[1]), duc des Francs (960-987), puis roi des Francs (987-996), fut le premier souverain de la dynastie cap�etienne. Fils de Hugues le Grand et de son �epouse Hedwige de Saxe, il est l'h�eritier des puissants Robertiens, la lign�ee qui est en comp�etition pour le pouvoir avec les grandes familles aristocratiques de Francie aux IXe et Xe si�ecles. La fin du Xe si�ecle conna�it le d�ebut d'une r�evolution �economique et sociale qui allait trouver son apog�ee vers 1100[2]. Les progr�es agricoles, le d�ebut des d�efrichements et l'augmentation des capacit�es d'�echanges entra�in�ee par l'introduction du denier d'argent par les premiers Carolingiens, entra�inent une dynamique �economique encore timide mais r�eelle. Dans le m�eme temps, la fin des invasions et la continuit�e des guerres personnelles entra�inent la construction des premiers ch�ateaux priv�es o�u peuvent trouver refuge les paysans. En parall�ele, la nouvelle �elite guerri�ere, les chevaliers, entre en concurrence avec l'ancienne aristocratie fonci�ere carolingienne. Pour canaliser ces nouveaux venus et pour assurer la protection de leurs biens, l'aristocratie et l'�Eglise soutiennent et exploitent le mouvement de la paix de Dieu. C'est dans ce contexte qu'Hugues Capet peut instaurer la dynastie cap�etienne. Il b�en�eficie tout d'abord de l'?uvre politique de son p�ere qui parvient �a contenir les ambitions de Herbert II de Vermandois, puis �a en neutraliser la lign�ee. Cependant, cela ne peut se faire qu'en aidant les Carolingiens, pourtant totalement �evinc�es de la course �a la couronne depuis la d�ech�eance de Charles le Simple, �a se maintenir. En 960, Hugues Capet h�erite du titre de duc des Francs obtenu par son p�ere en �echange de la concession de la couronne �a Louis IV d'Outremer. Mais, avant de parvenir au pouvoir, il doit se lib�erer de la tutelle des Ottoniens et �eliminer les derniers Carolingiens. C'est avec le soutien de l'�Eglise, et en particulier de l'�ev�eque Adalb�eron de Reims et de Gerbert d'Aurillac, tous deux proches de la cour ottonienne, qu'il est enfin �elu et sacr�e roi des Francs en 987. La relative faiblesse d'Hugues Capet est paradoxalement un atout pour son �election par les autres grandes familles avec le soutien des Ottoniens, car il est peu mena�cant aux yeux des grands vassaux et pour les ambitions imp�eriales. Cependant, si effectivement le nouveau roi ne parvient pas �a soumettre ses vassaux indisciplin�es, son r�egne voit une modification de la conception du royaume et du roi. Ainsi, Hugues Capet renoue avec l'�Eglise en s'entourant syst�ematiquement des principaux �ev�eques et se rapproche de l'aristocratie en s'alliant avec les grands princes territoriaux (le duc de Normandie ou le comte d'Anjou), ce qui renforce son tr�one. Cette histoire du premier Cap�etien nous est surtout connue gr�ace au moine lettr�e Richer de Reims. La Francia occidentalis se trouve d�efinitivement s�epar�ee de l'Empire et le premier cap�etien, comme ses successeurs, met toute son �energie �a cr�eer une dynastie continue en consolidant son pouvoir sur son domaine et en y associant son fils Robert le Pieux le jour de No�el de l'an 987[3]. La couronne est effectivement transmise �a son fils �a sa mort en 996. La dynastie cap�etienne qu'il fonde ainsi dure plus de huit si�ecles et donne naissance �a des lign�ees de souverains en Espagne, en Italie, en Hongrie, au Portugal et au Br�esil[4]. -------------------- Hugh succeeded to his father's numerous fiefs in 956, thus becoming one of the most powerful feudatories of France. He supported his cousin Lothaire in a war against Otto II of Germany. When the son of Lothaire (Louis V) died, Hugh Capet was proclaimed King of the Franks in 987. He was the first to use the Capet surname; he ruled France from 987-986. His kingdom included all of the present day France except for Brittany and Aquitaine. He was a devoted son of the church, interested in clerical reform and in participating in church ceremonies [Colonial and Revolutionary Lineages of America, Vol. 1, p. 358]. Duke of France between 956 and 987. Lay-Abbot of St. Martin's in Tours, between 956 and 987. He joined the dignity of Abbot of St-Martin with the Crown of France in perpetuity in 987 [Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter The Catholic Encyclopedia, I-XIV (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908-1912), XV:Archdiocese of Tours]. He succeeded the last of the Carolingians to rule, Louis "do-Nothing." He ascended to the throne of France in May 987. He was crowned by Adalbero, Archbishop of Reims, on 3 July 987 in Noyon, France [Encyclopaedea Britannica and Joy Law, Fleur de Lys, The Kings and Queens of France (90 Great Russell Street, London, WC1B 3PT: Hamish Hamilton Ltd, 1976), pg. 27 - says "proclaimed 1 July, and consecrated 5 July" and Christian Settipani & Patrick van Kerrebrouck, La Prehistoire des Capetiens 481-987, Premiere partie: Merovingians, Carolingians et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq: Editions Christian, 1993), pg. 415]. King of Franks in France, between 3 July 987 and 24 October 996 [Christian Settipani & Patrick van Kerrebrouck, La Prehistoire des Capetiens 481-987, Premiere partie: Merovingians, Carolingians et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq: Editions Christian, 1993), pg. 415]. He was challenged by the barons on his election as King; one in particular, the Count of P�erigord, who raised an army and attacked him after 5 July 987 [Joy Law, Fleur de Lys, The Kings and Queens of France (90 Great Russell Street, London, WC1B 3PT: Hamish Hamilton Ltd, 1976), pg. 28]. He died on 24 October 996 in "les-Juifs", Prasville, Eure-et-Loire, France. He died, according to Richer, a monk at St. Remigus, "covered in spots [possibly smallpox] at his ch�ateau in the hands of Jews [probably his doctors]." He had ruled for 9 years, and 4 months [Christian Settipani & Patrick van Kerrebrouck, La Prehistoire des Capetiens 481-987, Premiere partie: Merovingians, Carolingians et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq: Editions Christian, 1993), pg. 415 and Joy Law, Fleur de Lys, The Kings and Queens of France (90 Great Russell Street, London, WC1B 3PT: Hamish Hamilton Ltd, 1976), pg. 27]. -------------------- In 987 the dynasty took its name from Hugh's by-name (Capet) which referred to his distinctive cloak. Hugh was descended from 'Robert the Strong', Marquess of Neustria (d. 866), whose descendants ranked among the strongest men inthe West Frankia in the succeeding century; three of them (Odo 887-898, Robert 922-923 & Raoul 923-936) held the royal title. Sources: Comptons Interactive Encyclopedia The book, 'The Oxford History of Medieval Europe' The book, 'Kings & Queens of Europe' The book, 'The Dark Ages' The book, 'French Kings' -------------------- -------------------- He was the King of France and Count of Paris, Poitou and Orleans. He was the Hereditary Abbot of St. Martin and St. Denis. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Capet_of_France -------------------- Hugo Capeto (938 ? 24 de Outubro de 996) foi rei dos francos de 987 a 996, o fundador da dinastia capetiana. Era filho de Hugo, o Grande, duque dos francos, e de Hedwige, ou Avoia, da Sax�onia, filha de Henrique I da Sax�onia, rei da Germ�ania. Em 987, Hugo Capeto, ent�ao duque dos francos, tornou Paris na principal cidade do pa�is e o poderio do ducado estendeu-se gradativamente a toda a Fran�ca, durante o per�iodo de lutas civis que acompanhou as tr�es primeiras Cruzadas. Homem de grandes virtudes administrativas, n�ao granjeou o poder por simpatias, mas sim por ast�ucia, for�ca e o suborno. Do seu casamento em 970 com Adelaide da Aquit�ania (945-1004), filha de Guilherme III, conde de Poitiers e duque da Aquit�ania, nasceram:[10][11] # Gisela de Fran�ca (969 - c. 1000), casada em 970 com Hugo I de Abbeville (970 -?), conde de Ponthieu e Senhor de Abbeville. # Edwige de Fran�ca, ou Hadwige (970-1013), casada em 996 com Ranier IV, conde de Hainaut, e depois com o conde Hugo III de Dasbourg. # Roberto II, o Piedoso (972-1031), seu sucessor no trono franc�es casado por tr�es vezes, a 1�A em 988 com Ros�alia de Ivrea (937 - 1003), Senhora de Montreuil-sur-Mer, a 2�A em 997 com Berta da Borgonha (970 -?) e a 3 em 1002 com Constan�ca de Arles (c. 986 - Melun, 25 de Julho de 1032), filha de Guilherme I de Arles (953 - 993) e de Adelaide Branca de Anjou (955 - 1026). # Adelaide de Fran�ca (973-1068) �E relatada a exist�encia de outros filhos, mas a veracidade dessa descend�encia �e discut�ivel.[5] no entanto �e poss�ivel referir um filho de uma rela�c�ao com N da Aquitania: # Guzlin, arcebispo de Bourges. in: Wikip�edia, a enciclop�edia livre <http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugo_Capeto> -------------------- Hugh Capet From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Capet Hugh Capet King of the Franks (more...) An imaginary artistic portayal of Hugh Capet by Charles de Steuben, 1837. No contemporary image of the king exists today. King of France Reign 3 July 987 ? 24 October 996 Coronation 3 July 987, Noyon Predecessor Louis V Successor Robert II Junior king Robert II Spouse Adelaide of Aquitaine Issue Hedwig, Countess of Mons Gis�ele, Countess of Ponthieu Robert II Father Hugh the Great Mother Hedwige of Saxony Born c. 939 Paris, France Died 24 October 996 (aged 56) Paris, France Burial Saint Denis Basilica, Paris, France Hugh Capet[1] (c. 939 ? 24 October 996), called in contemporary sources "Hugh the Great" (Latin: Hugo Magnus),[2] was the first King of France of the eponymous Capetian dynasty from his election to succeed the Carolingian Louis Vin 987 until his death. Contents [hide] 1 Descent and inheritance 2 Election and extent of power 3 Dispute with the papacy 4 Legacy 5 Marriage and issue 6 Ancestry 7 Notes 8 References [edit] Descent and inheritance The son of Hugh the Great, Duke of France, and Hedwige of Saxony, daughter of the German king Henry the Fowler, Hugh was born in 939. His paternal family, the Robertians, were powerful landowners in the �Ile-de-France. His grandfather had been King Robert I and his grandmother Beatrice was a Carolingian, a daughter of Herbert I of Vermandois. This makes him the great-great-great-great-great grandson of Charlemagne through both of his parents, through Louisthe Pious and Pepin of Italy. King Odo was his grand-uncle and King Rudolph the son-in-law of his grandfather, King Robert I. Hugh was born into a well-connected and powerful family with many ties to the reigning nobility of Europe.[3] But for all this, Hugh's father was never king. When Rudolph died in 936, Hugh the Great organised the return of Louis d'Outremer, son of Charles the Simple, from his exile at the court of Athelstan of England. Hugh's motives are unknown, but it is presumed that he acted to forestall Rudolph's brother and successor as Duke of Burgundy, Hugh the Black, from taking the French throne, or to prevent it from falling into the grasping hands of Herbert II of Vermandois or Richard the Fearless, Duke of Normandy.[4] In 956, Hugh inherited his father's estates and became one of the most powerful nobles in the much-reduced West Frankish kingdom. However, as he was not yet an adult, his uncle Bruno, Archbishop of Cologne, acted as regent. YoungHugh's neighbours made the most of the opportunity. Theobald I of Blois, a former vassal of Hugh the Great, took the counties of Chartres and Ch�ateaudun. Further south, on the border of the kingdom, Fulk II of Anjou, another former client of Hugh the Great, carved out a principality at Hugh's expense and that of the Bretons.[5] A denier of Hugh Capet when he was Duke of France, calling him "duke by the grace of God" (Dux Dei Gratia). Minted at Paris (Parisi Civita) The realm in which Hugh grew up, and of which he would one day be king, bore no resemblance to modern France. Hugh's predecessors did not call themselves rois de France ("Kings of France"), and that title was not used until the time of his distant descendant Philip the Fair (died 1314). Kings ruled as rex Francorum ("King of the Franks") and the lands over which they ruled comprised only a very small part of the former Carolingian Empire. The eastern Frankish lands, the Holy Roman Empire, were ruled by the Ottonian dynasty, represented by Hugh's first cousin Otto II and then by Otto's son, Otto III. The lands south of the river Loire had largely ceased to be part of the West Frankish kingdom in the years after Charles the Simple was deposed in 922. The Duchy of Normandy and the Duchy of Burgundy were largely independent, and Brittany entirely so, although from 956 Burgundy was ruled by Hugh's brothers Odo and Henry.[6] [edit] Election and extent of power From 977 to 986, Hugh Capet allied himself with the German emperors Otto II and Otto III and with Archbishop Adalberon of Reims to dominate the Carolingian king, Lothair. By 986, he was king in all but name. After Lothair's son Louis died in May of 987, Adalberon and Gerbert of Aurillac convened an assembly of nobles to elect Hugh Capet as their king. In front of an electoral assembly at Senlis, Adalberon gave a stirring oration and pleaded to the nobles: Crown the Duke. He is most illustrious by his exploits, his nobility, his forces. The throne is not acquired by hereditary right; no one should be raised to it unless distinguished not only for nobility of birth, but for the goodness of his soul.[7] He was elected and crowned rex Francorum at Noyon in Picardy on 3 July 987, by the prelate of Reims, the first of the Capetian house. Immediately after his coronation, Hugh began to push for the coronation of his son Robert. Hugh's own claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated two kings should he diewhile on expedition.[8] Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to control the nobility.[9] Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the pretension of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain.[10] Robert was eventually crowned on 25 December that same year. Hugh Capet possessed minor properties near Chartres and Angers. Between Paris and Orl�eans he possessed towns and estates amounting to approximately 400 square miles (1,000 km�2). His authority ended there, and if he dared travel outside his small area, he risked being captured and held for ransom, though, as God's anointed, his life was largely safe. Indeed, there was a plot in 993, masterminded by Adalberon, Bishop of Laon and Odo I of Blois, to deliver Hugh Capet into the custody of Otto III. The plot failed, but the fact that no one was punished illustrates how tenuous his hold on power was. Beyond his power base, in the rest of France, there were still as many codes of law as there were fiefdoms. The "country" operated with 150 different forms of currency and at least a dozen languages.[citation needed] Uniting all this into one cohesive unit was a formidable task and a constant struggle between those who wore the crown of France and its feudal lords. As such, Hugh Capet's reign was marked by numerous power struggles with the vassals on the borders of the Seine and the Loire. While Hugh Capet's military power was limited and he had to seek military aid from Richard I of Normandy, his unanimous election as king gave him great moral authority and influence. Ad�emar de Chabannes records, probably apocryphally, that during an argument with the Count of Auvergne, Hugh demanded of him: "Who made you count?" The count riposted: "Who made you king?".[11] [edit] Dispute with the papacy Hugh made Arnulf Archbishop of Reims in 988, even though Arnulf was the nephew of his bitter rival, Charles of Lorraine. Charles thereupon succeeded in capturing Reims and took the archbishop prisoner. Hugh, however, considered Arnulf a turncoat and demanded his deposition by Pope John XV. The turn of events outran the messages, when Hugh captured both Charles and Arnulf and convoked a synod at Reims in June 991, which obediently deposed Arnulf and chose as his successor Gerbert of Aurillac. These proceedings were repudiated by Rome, although a second synod had ratified the decrees issued at Reims. John XV summoned the French bishops to hold an independent synod outside the King'srealm, at Aachen, to reconsider the case. When they refused, he called them to Rome, but they protested that the unsettled conditions en route and in Rome made that impossible. The Pope then sent a legate with instructions to call a council of French and German bishops at Mousson, where only the German bishops appeared, the French being stopped on the way by Hugh and Robert. Through the exertions of the legate, the deposition of Arnulf was finally pronounced illegal. After Hugh's death, Arnulf was released from his imprisonment and soon restored to all his dignities. [edit] Legacy Hugh Capet died on 24 October 996 in Paris and was interred in the Saint Denis Basilica. His son Robert continued to reign. Most historians regard the beginnings of modern France with the coronation of Hugh Capet. This is because, as Count of Paris, he made the city his power centre. The monarch began a long process of exerting control of the rest of the country from there. He is regarded as the founder of the Capetian dynasty. The direct Capetians, or the House of Capet, ruled France from 987 to 1328; thereafter, the Kingdom was ruled by cadet branches of the dynasty. All French kings through LouisPhilippe, and all royal pretenders since then, have belonged to the dynasty. [edit] Marriage and issue Hugh Capet married Adelaide, daughter of William Towhead, Count of Poitou. Their children are as follows: Robert II, who became king after the death of his father Hedwig, or Hathui, who married Reginar IV, Count of Hainaut Gisela, or Gisele A number of other daughters are less reliably attested.[12] [edit] Ancestry Hugh Capet (circa 938-96), king of France, and founder of the Capetian dynasty, son of Hugh the Great, count of Paris, whom he succeeded in 956. His lordship over many fiefs around Paris and Orl�eans made him the virtual ruler of France, and when King Louis V of France, the last of the Carolingian line, died without an heir in 987, Hugh's numerous vassals enabled him to win the election to the throne, defeating the Carolingian candidate, Charles, duke of Lorraine. Charles and many other great nobles of the realm attempted to resist his authority but, through force of arms and by judicious purchasing of allegiance, as well as through the support of the church, of which he was a devout member, Hugh established a measure of order within his kingdom. He had his son, Robert the Pious (later Robert II), elected and crowned his associate and successor in 988, thereby confirming the house of Capet, which ruled France until 1328. See also Capet. Capet, family name of the dynasty of kings that ruled France from 987 to 1328. In 987, on the death of Louis V, the last of the Carolingian kings of France, Hugh Capet, duke of France and count of Paris, was elected king by the nobility and the clergy. The feudal domain of the Capet family was �Ile de France, the area around Paris. The Capetian kings greatly strengthened the royal power in France by insisting on the principles of heredity, primogeniture, and indivisibility of crown lands. Shortly after Hugh became king, he had his son Robert crowned as Robert II (known as the Pious). Hugh appointed Robert his associate, and this practice of the father having his eldest son rule with him was followed until the late 12th century. The greatest of the Capetian kings were Philip II Augustus, Louis IX (St. Louis), and Philip IV. The dynasty secured direct overlordship of almost all France by the process of incorporating additional fiefs, large and small, with their own territories. In 1328, when Charles IV died without male heirs, the Capetians were succeeded by the Valois, a younger branch of the family, which ruled France until 1589. Encarta� 98 Desk Encyclopedia � & 1996-97 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.Hugh Capet Hugh Capet (circa 938-96), king of France, and founder of the Capetian dynasty, son of Hugh the Great, count of Paris, whom he succeeded in 956. His lordship over many fiefs around Paris and Orl�eans made him the virtual ruler of France, and when King Louis V of France, the last of the Carolingian line, died without an heir in 987, Hugh's numerous vassals enabled him to win the election to the throne, defeating the Carolingian candidate, Charles, duke of Lorraine. Charles and many other great nobles of the realm attempted to resist his authority but, through force of arms and by judicious purchasing of allegiance, as well as through the support of the church, of which he was a devout member, Hugh established a measure of order within his kingdom. He had his son, Robert the Pious (later Robert II), elected and crowned his associate and successor in 988, thereby confirming the house of Capet, which ruled France until 1328. See also Capet. Encarta� 98 Desk Encyclopedia � & 1996-97 Microsoft Corporation. RESEARCH NOTES: 956-996: Count of Paris [Ref: Weis AR7 #101] 987-996: King of France [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p201, Settipani Capet #11, Weis AR7 #53, Weis AR7 #101, Weis AR7 #141] Count of Poitou, Count of Orleans [Ref: Weis AR7 #53] first of the Capetian Kings of France [Ref: Weis AR7 #101, Weis AR7 #53, Weis AR7 #141] KING OF FRANCE 987-996 (BECAME KING 5/987, PROCLAIMED KING AT NOYON 7/1/987, CONSECRATED 7/5/987); COUNT OF PARIS 956-996; 1ST CAPETIAN KING; DIED (POSSIBLY) OF SMALLPOX
b. Note:   BI102319
Note:   Sources for this Information: date: 940 [Ref: Settipani Capet #11] 941 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p54] Winter 941 [Ref: ES II #11, Weis AR7 #53] abt 939 [Ref: Moriarty Plantagenet p24] abt 940 [Ref: Brandenburg 1995 p123] after 939 [Ref: Weis AR7 #101, Weis AR7 #141], parents: [Ref: Brandenburg 1995 p123, CMH p358, ES II #11, Moriarty Plantagenet p24, Paget HRHCharles p54, Redlich CharlemagneDesc p63, Settipani Capet #11, Settipani Capet p419, Watney WALLOP #203, Weis AR7 #101, Weis AR7 #141, Weis AR7 #53], father: [Ref: Brandenburg 1995 p86, Weir RoyalFam p13] Sources with Inaccurate Information: date: 938 [Ref: Wurts MCBarons p184], mother: Edhilda (#21206) [Ref: Weir RoyalFam p13]
c. Note:   DI102319
Note:   Sources for this Information: date: [Ref: Brandenburg 1995 p123, ES II #11, ES II #76, Moriarty Plantagenet p24, Paget HRHCharles p54, Redlich CharlemagneDesc p63, Weis AR7 #101, Weis AR7 #141, Weis AR7 #53] 996 [Ref: CMH p358, CMH p462, Settipani Capet #11, Tapsell Dynasties p201, Watney WALLOP #203], place: [Ref: ES II #11, Weis AR7 #53] Paris [Ref: Moriarty Plantagenet p24]
d. Note:   XI102319
Note:   Sources for this Information: place: [Ref: ES II #11, Weis AR7 #53]
e. Note:   NF72340
Note:   Sources for this Information: date: 963/968 [Ref: Moriarty Plantagenet p24] 968 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p54] abt 970 [Ref: Brandenburg 1995 p123, Brandenburg 1995 p124] before 969 [Ref: Weis AR7 #144A] summer 968 [Ref: ES II #11, Weis AR7 #53] um 970 [Ref: ES II #76], names: [Ref: Brandenburg 1995 p86, Moriarty Plantagenet p26, Settipani Capet #11, Weis AR7 #141], child: [Ref: CMH p462, ES II #11, Moriarty Plantagenet p24, Paget HRHCharles p54, Redlich CharlemagneDesc p63, Watney WALLOP #203, Watney WALLOP #486, Weis AR7 #101, Weis AR7 #106, Weis AR7 #144, Weis AR7 #53] Sources with Inaccurate Information: child: Alvais (#11295), wife of Renaud I Count of Nevers [Ref: Brandenburg 1995 p9, Moriarty Plantagenet p24, Moriarty Plantagenet p64]


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