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Marriage: Children:
  1. Jane Wyatt: Birth: ABT 1546 in Maidstone,Kent,England.

  2. GEORGE Wyatt: Birth: ABT 1550 in Allington Castle,Boxley,Kent,England. Death: 16 Sep 1623 in Ireland

a. Note:   Rootsweb WorldConnect Paul E Thurston Ibid. Tabitha Weiler [FAVthomas.FTW] Wyat also spelled Wyatt English soldier and conspirator who led an unsuccessful rebellion against Queen Mary I, probably the most formidable uprising ever faced by a Tudor monarch. Wyat's father was the renowned poet and diplomat Sir Thomas Wyat. As a young man he acquired a reputation for recklessness, and in 1543 he was briefly imprisoned for taking part in a London street riot. From 1543 to 1549 or 1550, he served in the army abroad, especially in France, achieving recognition as a skillful and daring officer. Wyat then returned to England and in 1551 served as sheriff in Kent, where he formed his own rudimentary military organization. On King Edward VI's death (July 1553) he supported the accession of Mary, a Roman Catholic, but by the end of the year he turned against the Queen, considering her proposed marriage to the future king Philip II of Spain to be an affront to England's national honour. He accordingly joined several others, including Lady Jane Grey's father, the Duke of Suffolk, in a conspiracy against the crown. The plot was revealed to Mary's lord chancellor, Stephen Gardiner, by the Earl of Devon, one of the conspirators, at the end of January 1554, with the result that of the conspirators only Wyat succeeded in raising an army. At first the government offered to negotiate with him, but it soon decided to suppress the insurgents. A force under the command of Thomas Howard, the aged duke of Norfolk, who was sent to put down the rebellion, largely defected to Wyat. On Feb. 3, 1554, Wyat entered the outskirts of London with some 3,000 men. He advanced swiftly to the centre of the city, but his troops became disheartened when the populace did not join their cause. Confronted by the royal forces, Wyat surrendered after a brief engagement. He was tried on March 15 and executed less than a month later. To the last, Mary's partisans made strenuous but unsuccessful efforts to persuade him to implicate Princess (afterward Queen) Elizabeth in his conspiracy. After his death he and his followers were widely regarded as patriots and martyrs by a populace that was becoming increasingly repelled by Mary's persecution of Protestants. To cite this page: "Wyat, Sir Thomas," Encyclopædia Britannica
  Sir Thomas Wyat, the Younger born c. 1521died April 11, 1554, London Wyat also spelled Wyatt English soldier and conspirator who led an unsuccessful rebellion against Queen Mary I , probably the most formidable uprising ever faced by a Tudor monarch. Wyat's father was the renowned poet and diplomat Sir Thomas Wyat. As a young man he acquired a reputation for recklessness, and in 1543 he was briefly imprisoned for taking part in a London street riot. … "Wyat, Sir Thomas, The Younger." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2004. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. 23 Oct. 2004 <<>>. APPENDIX VIII. THE WATCH AT THE COURT AND IN THE CITY, ON THE EVE OF WYAT'S ATTACK (Extracted from MS. Harl. 425, p. 94.) Edward Underhyll, "the hot Gospeller," -- we have his own authority that this designation was given him by some who were inclined to ridicule his Protestant zeal, -- has passed into a characterof some historical repute in the pages of Strype, Strickland and Ainsworth, though he owes the preservation of his name from entire oblivion to a single document, a sort of auto-biographical narrative of his persecutions and difficulties Miss Strickland, who incorrectly terms his narrative a diary, has expressed an earnest with that the whole of this "most precious document" were recoverable. To those who have joined her in that wish it may be some satisfaction to know that it is safe in the Harleian Collection. It may claim attention from the conductors of the new edition of the works of Strype, now in progress, though that historian has already published the substance of its best portions. The following passage, which graphically describes the state of alarm, both at the court and in the city, during Wyat's rebellion, will be found interesting. The night adventure at Ludgate and Newgate is passed over by Strype; and the latter part, which tells of the skirmishing near the palace, has been widely misunderstood by Miss Strickland. Sir Homffrey Rattclyffe was the levetenauntt off the pencyonars, and alwayes favored the Gospelle, by whose meanes I hadd my wagis stylle payde me. When Wyatt was cume into Southwarke, the pencyonars weare commaunded to wache in armoure thatt nyght at the courte, whiche I hearynge off, thought it best in lyke suerte to be there, least by my absens I myght have sume quarell piken unto me, or att the least be strekon off the boke for reseavynge any more wagis. After supper I putt one my armoure as the rest dide, for we weare apoynted to wache alle the nyght. So beyng alle armed, wee came uppe into the chamber of presens with ower pollaxes in ower handes, wherewith the ladies weare very fearefulle; sume lamentynge, cryinge, and wryngynge ther handes, seyde, "Alas, there is sume greate mischeffe towarde; we shalle alle be distroyde this nyght! Whatt a syght is this, to se the quenes chamber full of armed men; the lyke was never sene nor harde off." Then Mr. Norres, who was a jentyllman ussher of the utter chamber in kynge Henry the viiites tyme, and all kyng Edwardes tyme, alwayes a ranke papist, and therfore was now the cheffe ussher off quene Maryes privy chamber, he was apoynted to calle the wache, to se yff any weare lackynge; unto whome Moore, the clarke of ower cheke, delyvered the boke of ower names, wiche he parused before he wolde calle them att the curbarde, and when he came to my name, "Whatt (sayd he) whatt dothe he here?" "Syr (sayde the clarke) he is here redy to sarve as the rest be." "Naye, by God's body! (sayde he) that herytyke shall not wache heare; gyve me a pene." So he stroke my name owt off the boke. The clarke of the cheke sought me owte, and sayde unto me, "Mr. Underhyll, yow nede nott to wache, yow maye departe to your logynge." "Maye I? (sayde I) I wolde be glade off thatt," thynkynge I hadde byn favored, because I was nott recovered off my sykenes: butt I dyde not welle truste hym because he was also a papist. "Mary, I depart in dede (sayd I), wylle yow be my discharge?" "I tell yow trew (sayde he), Mr. Norres hathe strekon you owt off the boke, sayng these wordes 'That herytyke shall nott wache here;' I tell you trwe what he sayde." "Mary, I thanke hym (sayde I), and yow also; yow could nott do me a greater plesure." "Naye, burden nott me withall (sayde he), it is nott my doynge." So departed I into the halle where ower men weare apoynted to wache. I toke my men with me, and a lynke, and wentt my wayes. When I came to the courte gate, ther I mett with Mr. Clement Througemartone, and George Feris, tindynge ther lynges to go to London. Mr. Througemarton was cume post frome Coventry, and hadde byne with the quene to declare unto her the takynge of the duke of Suffoke. Mr. Feris was sentt from the councell unto the lorde William Hawwarde, who hadde the charge of the whache att London bryge. As we wentt, for thatt they weare bothe my frendes, and protestanes, I tolde them my goode happe, and maner of my discharge off the whache att the cowrtt. When we came to Ludegate it was past a leavene of the cloke, the gate was fast loked, and a greate wache within the gate off Londonars, but noone withowte, whereoff Henry Peckham hadde the charge under his father, who belyke was goone to his father, or to loke to the water syde. Mr. Througemartone knoked harde, and called unto them, saynge. "Here is iij or iiij jentyllmen cum from the courte thatt must come in, and therfore opon the gate." "Who?" cothe one, "Whatt?" cothe another, and moche laughynge they made. "Cane ye tell what ye doo, syrs?" sayd Mr. Througmartone, declarynge his name, and that he hadd byne with the quene to showe her grace off the takynge off the duke off Suffoke, "and my logynge is within, as I am sure sume off you do know." "And," sayde Ferris, "I am Ferris, that was lorde off misrule with kynge Edwarde, and am sentt from the councell unto my lorde William, who hathe the charge of the brige, as yow knowe, uppon weyghtie affayres, and therfore lett us in, or eles ye be nott the quenes fryndes." Stylle there was mouche laughynge amoungst them. Then sayd too or three off them, "We have nott the keyes, we are nott trusted with them; the keyes be car ryed awaye for this nyghte." "Whatt shall I do?" sayde Mr. Througemartone, "I am wery and faynte, and I waxe nowe colde. I am nott aquaynted here abowte, nor no mane dare opone his doores in this daungerous tyme, nor I am nott able to goo bake agayne to the courte; I shall perishe this nyght." "Welle (sayde I) lett us goo to Newgate, I thynke I shalle gett in ther." "Tushe (sayde he), it is butt in vayne, we shalbe aunswered ther as we are here." "Welle (sayde I) and the worst fall, I can loge ye in Newgate; yow know whatt acquayntaunce I have ther, [1] and the keper's doore is withowte the gate." "That weare a bade shifte (sayde he), I shoulde almost as lyffe dye in the stretts; yett I wyll rather wander agayne to the court." "Welle, (sayde I) lett us goo prove. I beleve the keper wyll healpe us in att the gate, or eles lett us in thorow his wardes, for he hatthe a doore on the insyde also; yff all this fayle I have a frend att the gate, Newmane the ierinmounger, in whose howse I have byne logede, where I dare waraunt yow we shall have logynge, or att the lest howse-rome and fyer." "Marye, this is wel sayde," (sayethe Ferris;) so to Newgate we wentt, where was a greate wache withowte the gate, wiche my frende Newmane hadde the charge off, for that he was the cunnestable. They marveled to se those torches cumynge thatt tyme off the nyght. When we came to them, "Mr. Underhyll (sayde Newmane), whatt newes, thatt ynn walke so late?" "None butt goode (sayd I); we cum from the cowrte, and wolde have goone in att Ludgate, and cannott be lett in, whertore I pray yow yff yow cannott helpe us in here, lett [us] have looynge with yow." "Mary, that ye shall (sayde he), or go in att the gate, whether ye wille." "Godamercy, gentyll frende (sayde Mr. Througemartone); I praye you lett us goo in yff it maye be." He called to the cunestable within the gate, who opened the gate forthwith. "Now happye was I (sayde Mr. Througemartone) that I mett with you, I hadd byne lost eles." When Wyatt was cum abowte, notwithstandynge my discharge of the wache by Mr. Norres, I putt on my armoure and wentt to the courte, where I founde all my felowes armed in the halle, wiche they weare apoynted to kepe that daye. Old syr John Gage was apoynted withowte the utter gate, with sume off the garde and his sarvantes and others with hym; the rest off the garde weare in the greate courte, the gattes standynge opune. Sir Rychard Southwell had the charge of the bakesydes, as the woodeyarde and thatt waye, with ve men. The quene was in the galary by the gatehowse. Then came Knevett and Thomas Cobam, with a company of the rebelles with them, thorow the gatehowse, from Westmester, [2] uppon the sodein, wherewith syr John Gage and thre of the jugeis, [3] thatt were menly armed in olde bryggantynes, weare so fryghtede thatt they fledd in att the gattes in suche hast thatt old Gage fell downe in the durte and was foule arayed; and so shutt the gates. Wheratt the rebelles shotte many arowes. By meanes of the greate hurliburli in shuttynge of the gattes, the garde thatt weare in the courte made as greate haste in att the halle doore, and wolde have cum into the halle amongst us, wiche we wolde not suffer. Then they wentt throungynge towardes the watergate, the kycheyns, and those ways. Mr. Gage came in amoungst us all durt, and so fryghted thatt he coulde nott speke to us; then came the thre jugeis, so fryghtede thatt we coulde nott kepe them owte excepte we shulde beate therm downe. With thatt we issued owt off the halle into the courte to se whatt the matter was; where ther was none lefte butt the porters, and, the gattes beyng fast shutt, as we wentt towardes the gate, meanynge to goo forthe, syr Rycharde Southewell came forthe of the bake yardes into the courte. "Syr (saide wee) commaunde the gates to be opened thatt we maye goo to the quenes enemyes, we wyll breake them opone eles; it is to mouche shame the gates shulde be thus shutt for a fewe rebelles; the quene shall se us felle downe her enemys this daye before her face." "Masters," sayde he, and putt off his muriane off his heade, "I shall desyer yow alle as yow be jentyllmen, to staye yourselves heare thatt I maye goo upe to the quene to knowe her plesure, and yow shall have the gates oponed; and, as I am a jentyllman, I wyll make spede." Uppon this we stayde, and he made a spedie returne, and brought us worde the quene was contentt we shoulde have the gates opened. "But her request is (sayde he) that yow wyll not goo forthe off her syght, for her only trust is in yow for the defence of her parsone this daye." So the gate was opened, and we marched before the ga]ary wyndowe, wheare she spake unto us, requyrynge us, as we weare jentyllmen in whome she only trusted, thatt we wolde nott goo from thatt place. [4] Ther we marched upe and downe the space off an ower, and then came a harrolde postynge to brynge newes that Wyatt was taken. Immediately came syr Mores Barkeley and Wyatt behynd hym, unto whome he dyd yelde att the Temple gate, and Thomas Cobam behynde ane other jentyllman. Anone after we weare all brought unto the quenes presentes, and every one kyssed her hande, off whome we hadde greate thanks, and large promises how goode she wolde be unto us; but fewe or none off us gott any thynge, although she was very liberall to many others thatt weare enemys unto God's worde, as fewe off us weare. Footnotes 1. Underhyll had been recently discharged from imprisonment in Newgate, to which he was committed by the privy council, for the contents of a ballad he had "put forth in print" on the queen's accession. See Strype, Memorials, iii. 61. 2. This is a point which was misunderstood by our chronicler, in the passage at p. 49, beginning, "At Charing crosse there stood the lord chamberlayne," &c., and also by John Proctor, the person who undertook to be the historian of Wyat's rebellion. The attack on Whitehall did not come from Charing Cross, but from the Westminster side. The former was a natural supposition with those who were not apprised of the exact circumstances; but they are fully explained by Holinshed. The party which threatened the palace of Whitehall was, in fact, the same which our own chronicler describes (p. 48) as "Cutbart Vaughan and about ij auncyentes," who "turned downe towards Westminster," when Wyat's band was first attacked and disjointed near Saint James's palace. Underhyll, it is seen above, calls their captains "Knevett and Thomas Cobham," and Holinshed says they were commanded by Knevett .There were two of that name, Anthony and William; and our chronicler seems to say (p. 50), that both Thomas Cobham and William Knevett were arrested with Wyatt at Temple bar. But they may have surrendered at Charing cross. Whoever the leaders of the party were, the facts of the slight attack which they made on Whitehall are very clearly related by Holinshed, who, after describing the charge made by the earl of Pembroke's horsemen near Saint James's palace, adds that "certaine of his companie, which escaped the charge, passed by the backeside of Saint James towardes Westmynster, and from thence to the courte, and finding the gates shut agaynst them, stayed there a while, and shotte off many arrowes into the wyndowes and over into the gardeyne, neverthelesse without any hurt that was knowne. Where upon the sayde rebelles, over whom one Knevett was captaine, perceyving themselves to be too fewe to doe any great feate there, departed from thence to followe Wyat, who was gone before towardes London; and, being on their way at Charing crosse, were there encountered by sir Henry Jerningham captain of the queenes garde, sir Edwarde Bray maister of the ordinaunce, and sir Philippe Parys, knightes, which were sent, by the order of the earle of Pembroke, with a bande of archers, and certaine fielde peeces, for the reskue of the court; who encountered the sayde rebelles at Charing crosse aforasayde, after they had discharged the fielde peeces upon them; joyned wyth those rebelles, halfe armed and halfe unarmed, at the pushe of the pyke, and very soone dispersed theyr power, whereof some fledde into the lane towarde Saint Gyles, and some on the other syde by a brewhouse towardes the Thames. In this conflict, which was the chiefe tryall of that day, there was not founde slayne to the number of twentie of those rebelles, which happened by reason that uppon theyr joyning wyth the queenes souldiours, the one parte coulde not bee discerned from the other, but onely by the myre and dyrt taken by the way, which stacke uppon theyr garments comming in the night; wherefore the cry on the queenes part that day was, Downe with the daggle-tayles." To this relation Proctor supplies only one additional fact, namely, that while the court gates were open, 'one maister Nicolas Rockewod, being a gentleman of Lyncolnes inn, and in armour at the said court gate, was shotte through hys nose with an arrowe by the rebels. For the comminge of the said rebels was not loked for that way.' The Nicholas Rokewode here mentioned adds another name to the list of legal warriors on this occasion (see the note before, in p. 40). His name occurs in the evidences of the Rokewode family as connected with some marriage settlements in 1548, but his place in the pedigree is not assigned to him (Collectanea Topog. et Geneal ii 140). 3. These judges were those of the common pleas. "This daye the judges in the common place at Westminster satte in armoure."-- Proctor. 4. The anecdote which Proctor gives of Mary's pergonal condnct at this alarming crisis may be properly appended to the above: -- "In 90 muche divers timerous and coldehearted souldioures came to the queene, crying, All is lost: away, away; a barge, a barge! Yet her grace never chaunged her chere, nor woulde remove one foote out of the house, but asked for the lord of Pembroke, in whom her grace had worthely reposed great confidence. Answere beinge made that he was in the fielde, 'Wel: then, (quod her grace,) fal to praier, and I warrant you we shal heare better newes anone; for my lord will not deceave me I knowe well: yf he would, God wyll not, in whom my chiefe trust is, who will not deceave mee.' And in dede ghortlye after newes came all of victorie, how that Wyat was taken." Proctor gave the best face he could to the whole affair; but the truer account is evidently that of our own chronicle, which admits that at one time the queen had determined to go to the Tower forthwith (p. 48), whereupon, of course, her barge would be ordered to be in readiness; and also records the suspicion entertained, when the rebels were allowed to pass, that the earl of Pembroke had gone over to Wyat's part (p. 49). All original graphics, photographs and text on this page are © (copyright) 1995-2004 Lara E. Eakins except where noted. All of the pages in the electronic texts section are in the public domain to the best of my knowledge. I would appreciate credit for the time that I've taken to put these documents into electronic format if you use them in a project, paper, website, etc. Thomas Wyatt the younger (1521 <>-11 April <>, 1554 <>) was a rebel leader during the reign of Queen Mary I of England <>. He was born at Allington Castle, the only son of Sir Thomas Wyatt <>, a poet, by Elizabeth Brooke, daughter of Thomas Brooke, 3rd Lord Cobham. The Duke of Norfolk <> was his godfather. At the age of fifteen he became a squire at the court of King Henry VIII <>, and Joint Constable of Conisborough Castle <>. He married Jane Hawte, daughter and co-heiress of Sir William Hawte of Bishopsbourne, by whom he had several children. He was brought up a Roman Catholic <>. However, he is said to have been turned into an enemy of the Spaniards by winessing the activities of the Spanish Inquisition <> while accompanying his father on a mission to Spain <>. On his father's death in 1542, he inherited Allington Castle and Boxley Abbey. He served in the war against France <>, and was knighted <> in 1547. During the reign of King Edward VI <>, he was arrested, along with Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey <>, for breaking windows while drunk. They were tried before the Privy Council and were imprisoned in the Tower of London <>. On his release, Wyatt went to fight for King Carlos V of Spain in Flanders <>, obtaining further valuable military experience. In 1543 he took part in the siege of Landrecies, and in the following year was at the siege of Boulogne. Returning to Allington, he lived quietly until the uprising by the Duke of Northumberland, to put Lady Jane Grey <> on the throne. Escaping punishment by Queen Mary <>, he took no well further part in politics until Mary's plans to marry Philip II of Spain <> became known. Wyatt later claimed to have been urged by Edward Courtenay, Earl of Devon, to join an uprising to prevent the marriage. Wyatt raised an army of four thousand in Kent <>, and marched on London in what became known as "Wyatt's rebellion". He was found guilty of treason and beheaded at the Tower of London <>. After he was beheaded, his body was dismembered. Wyatt's rebellion was thought by many to have been raised with the intention of putting Princess Elizabeth <> on the throne in her sister's place, and almost cost the princess her life.
  the material below can be merged: He is known to have had a natural son, whose mother Elizabeth was a daughter of Sir Edward Darrell of Littlecote. In 1554 <> he joined with the conspirators who combined to prevent the marriage of Queen Mary <> with Philip the prince of Spain, afterwards King Philip II <>. A general movement was planned; but his fellow-conspirators were timid and inept, the rising was serious only in Kent, and Wyat became a formidable rebel mostly by accident. On January 22 <>, 1554 he summoned a meeting of his friends at his castle of Allington, and the 25th was fixed for the rising. On the 26th Wyat occupied Rochester <>, and issued a proclamation to the county. The country people and local gentry collected, but at first the queen's supporters, led by Lord Abergavenny and Sir Robert Southwell, the sheriff, appeared to be able to suppress the rising with ease, gaining some successes against isolated bands of the insurgents. But the Spanish marriage was unpopular, and Kent <> was more affected by the preaching of the reformers than most of the country districts of England. Abergavenny and Southwell were deserted by their men, who either disbanded or went over to Wyat. A detachment of the London train-bands sent against him by Queen Mary, under the command of the duke of Norfolk, followed their example. The rising now seemed so formidable that a deputation was sent to Wyat by the queen and council to ask for his terms. He insisted that the Tower <> should be surrendered to him, and the queen put under his charge. The insolence of these demands caused a reaction in London, where the reformers were strong and were at first in sympathy with him. When he reached Southwark <> on February 3 <> he found London Bridge <> occupied in force, and was unable to penetrate into the city. He was driven from Southwark by the threats of Sir John Brydges (or Bruges), afterwards Lord Chandos, who was prepared to fire on the suburb with the guns of the Tower. Wyat now marched up the river to Kingston <>, where he crossed the Thames, and made his way to Ludgate <> with a part of his following. Some of his men were cut off. Others lost heart and deserted. His only hope was that a rising would take place, but the loyal forces kept order, and after a futile attempt to force the gate Wyat surrendered. He was brought to trial on the 15th of March, and could make no defence. Execution was for a time delayed, no doubt in the hope that in order to save his life he would say enough to compromise the queens sister Elizabeth, afterwards Queen Elizabeth <>, in whose interests the rising was supposed to have been made. But he would not confess enough to render her liable to a trial for treason <>. He was executed on the 11th of April, and on the scaffold expressly cleared the princess of all complicity in the rising. His estates were afterwards partly restored to his son, George, the father of the Sir Francis Wyat (d. 1644) who was governor of Virginia <> in 162126 and 1639 1642. A fragment of the castle of Allington is still inhabited as a farm-house, near Maidstone, on the bank of the Medway <>. See James Anthony Froude <>, History of England. Reference This entry incorporates public domain text originally from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica <>.
  Now, the question who should be the Queen's husband had given rise to a great deal of discussion, and to several contending parties. Some said Cardinal Pole was the man - but the Queen was of opinion that he was NOT the man, he being too old and too much of a student. Others said that the gallant young COURTENAY, whom the Queen had made Earl of Devonshire, was the man - and the Queen thought so too, for a while; but she changed her mind. At last it appeared that PHILIP, PRINCE OF SPAIN, was certainly the man - though certainly not the people's man; for they detested the idea of such a marriage from the beginning to the end, and murmured that the Spaniard would establish in England, by the aid of foreign soldiers, the worst abuses of the Popish religion, and even the terrible Inquisition itself. These discontents gave rise to a conspiracy for marrying young Courtenay to the Princess Elizabeth, and setting them up, with popular tumults all over the kingdom, against the Queen. This was discovered in time by Gardiner; but in Kent, the old bold county, the people rose in their old bold way. SIR THOMAS WYAT, a man of great daring, was their leader. He raised his standard at Maidstone, marched on to Rochester, established himself in the old castle there, and prepared to hold out against the Duke of Norfolk, who came against him with a party of the Queen's guards, and a body of five hundred London men. The London men, however, were all for Elizabeth, and not at all for Mary. They declared, under the castle walls, for Wyat; the Duke retreated; and Wyat came on to Deptford, at the head of fifteen thousand men. But these, in their turn, fell away. When he came to Southwark, there were only two thousand left. Not dismayed by finding the London citizens in arms, and the guns at the Tower ready to oppose his crossing the river there, Wyat led them off to Kingston-upon- Thames, intending to cross the bridge that he knew to be in that place, and so to work his way round to Ludgate, one of the old gates of the City. He found the bridge broken down, but mended it, came across, and bravely fought his way up Fleet Street to Ludgate Hill. Finding the gate closed against him, he fought his way back again, sword in hand, to Temple Bar. Here, being overpowered, he surrendered himself, and three or four hundred of his men were taken, besides a hundred killed. Wyat, in a moment of weakness (and perhaps of torture) was afterwards made to accuse the Princess Elizabeth as his accomplice to some very small extent. But his manhood soon returned to him, and he refused to save his life by making any more false confessions. He was quartered and distributed in the usual brutal way, and from fifty to a hundred of his followers were hanged. The rest were led out, with halters round their necks, to be pardoned, and to make a parade of crying out, 'God save Queen Mary!' In the danger of this rebellion, the Queen showed herself to be a woman of courage and spirit. She disdained to retreat to any place of safety, and went down to the Guildhall, sceptre in hand, and made a gallant speech to the Lord Mayor and citizens. But on the day after Wyat's defeat, she did the most cruel act, even of her cruel reign, in signing the warrant for the execution of Lady Jane Grey. They tried to persuade Lady Jane to accept the unreformed religion; but she steadily refused. On the morning when she was to die, she saw from her window the bleeding and headless body of her husband brought back in a cart from the scaffold on Tower Hill where he had laid down his life. But, as she had declined to see him before his execution, lest she should be overpowered and not make a good end, so, she even now showed a constancy and calmness that will never be forgotten. She came up to the scaffold with a firm step and a quiet face, and addressed the bystanders in a steady voice. They were not numerous; for she was too young, too innocent and fair, to be murdered before the people on Tower Hill, as her husband had just been; so, the place of her execution was within the Tower itself. She said that she had done an unlawful act in taking what was Queen Mary's right; but that she had done so with no bad intent, and that she died a humble Christian. She begged the executioner to despatch her quickly, and she asked him, 'Will you take my head off before I lay me down?' He answered, 'No, Madam,' and then she was very quiet while they bandaged her eyes. Being blinded, and unable to see the block on which she was to lay her young head, she was seen to feel about for it with her hands, and was heard to say, confused, 'O what shall I do! Where is it?' Then they guided her to the right place, and the executioner struck off her head. You know too well, now, what dreadful deeds the executioner did in England, through many, many years, and how his axe descended on the hateful block through the necks of some of the bravest, wisest, and best in the land. But it never struck so cruel and so vile a blow as this. The father of Lady Jane soon followed, but was little pitied. Queen Mary's next object was to lay hold of Elizabeth, and this was pursued with great eagerness. Five hundred men were sent to her retired house at Ashridge, by Berkhampstead, with orders to bring her up, alive or dead. They got there at ten at night, when she was sick in bed. But, their leaders followed her lady into her bedchamber, whence she was brought out betimes next morning, and put into a litter to be conveyed to London. She was so weak and ill, that she was five days on the road; still, she was so resolved to be seen by the people that she had the curtains of the litter opened; and so, very pale and sickly, passed through the streets. She wrote to her sister, saying she was innocent of any crime, and asking why she was made a prisoner; but she got no answer, and was ordered to the Tower. They took her in by the Traitor's Gate, to which she objected, but in vain. One of the lords who conveyed her offered to cover her with his cloak, as it was raining, but she put it away from her, proudly and scornfully, and passed into the Tower, and sat down in a court-yard on a stone. They besought her to come in out of the wet; but she answered that it was better sitting there, than in a worse place. At length she went to her apartment, where she was kept a prisoner, though not so close a prisoner as at Woodstock, whither she was afterwards removed, and where she is said to have one day envied a milkmaid whom she heard singing in the sunshine as she went through the green fields. Gardiner, than whom there were not many worse men among the fierce and sullen priests, cared little to keep secret his stern desire for her death: being used to say that it was of little service to shake off the leaves, and lop the branches of the tree of heresy, if its root, the hope of heretics, were left. He failed, however, in his benevolent design. Elizabeth was, at length, released; and Hatfield House was assigned to her as a residence, under the care of one SIR THOMAS POPE. A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens England : Wyatt's Rebellion 1554 A.) Prehistory After the short reign of Edward VI. (1547-1553), which had seen the introduction of the protestant reformation in England and political instability, his succession had been contested. While Mary ("Bloody Mary") easily brushed aside her challenger Lady Jane Grey (who was imprisoned in the Tower) in 1553, her policy of reestablishment of Catholicism, but most of all her planned marriage to Philip II. of Spain, caused resentment. B.) The Rebellion Sir Thomas Wyatt (Wyat), a protestant, on January 24th 1554, raised 3,000 armed men in Kent (as part of a plotted rebellion that would include other forces from the Welsh Marches, Devon, the Southwest; the plot was uncovered; only Wyat's force actually rebelled), marched on London; he surrendered February 4th. The leaders of the rebellion were executed in April that year. C.) The Legacy Lady Jane Grey was executed in 1554.
  David Michael Loades (University of Durham), Encyclopaedia Britannica (1972), vol. 23, p. 827 Introduction Wyat, Sir Thomas, the Younger (c. 1521–1554), English soldier and conspirator who led one of the most serious rebellions of Tudor times, was the son of Sir Thomas Wyat (q.v.) the elder. On his father's death in 1542 he inherited extensive Kentish estates, including his principal seat, Allington Castle. At that stage he had a reputation for recklessness, and was briefly imprisoned in 1543 for taking part with Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, in a London street riot. Thereafter he served abroad, and traveled extensively in Germany, France, Italy, and Switzerland, acquiring an extensive knowledge of military matters and recognition as a skilful and daring captain. Beginnings of Wyat's Rebellion The date of his return is uncertain, but in the autumn of 1549 he submitted to Protector Somerset's council a timely project for a selective militia to provide a safeguard against civil disturbances. Somerset's fall soon afterward caused this plan to be abandoned, but Wyat seems to have used his position in Kent (he was sheriff in 1551) to create a rudimentary organization on his own initiative. On Edward VI's death (July 1553) he supported Mary I, and proclaimed her at Rochester, but by the end of the year rumours of the proposed marriage between mary and the future king Philip II of Spain had drawn Wyat into an extensive conspiracy. It was originally planned that Henry Grey, duke of suffolk, should raise his friends and dependents in Leicestershire, Sir James Crofts on the Welsh Marches, Wyat in Kent, and Edward Courtenay, earl of Devon, and Sir Peter Carew in the Southwest. The plot was detected and forced into premature action at the end of January 1554, with the result that Crofts did not stir, Devon turned informer, and suffolk and Carew could make only feeble gestures. Only Wyat succeeded, through his local organization and powers of leadership, in raising a force, and the whole burden of the action therfore fell upon him. The sheriff of Kent, Sir Robert Southwell, and Henry Neville, Lord Abergavenny, tried unsuccessfully to raise a force against him while the London trainbands, sent down under the command of the aged Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk, deserted to him. Uprising Collapses Lack of confidence, and conflict within the council, resulted first in an offer to negotiate, and only belatedly in a resolute attempt to oppose him. On Feb. 3, at the head of about 3,000 men, he entered southwark unchallenged, but was unable to cross London Bridge. Success therafter depended upon a sympathetic rising in London, for which he had good reason to hope if he could take the city authorities by surprise. For this purpose he attempted a rapid night march by way of Kingston-upon-Thames, but found the royal forces under William Herbert, earl of Pembroke, awaiting him. The morale of both sides was extremely low, but that of the rebels disintegrated first, and they surrendered after a nominal engagement. The Rebel's Fate Wyat was tried on March 15, and executed on April 11, 1554, strenuous but unsuccessful efforts being made to the last to persuade him to implicate Princess Elizabeth (afterward Queen Elizabeth I) in his conspiracy. After his death he and his followers were widely regarded as martyrs to the cause of patriotism. His widow and five surviving children, rendered destitute by his attainder, were relieved by Queen Mary's generosity in 1557, but only in 1563 did his son George regain a part of his inheritance. (2) Sidney, Lee, in Leslie Stephan & Sidney Lee, ed., Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 1885-1901[reprint 1993]), v. 21, pp. 1102-1104 SKETCHES OF THE LIFE OF Sir Thomas Wyat, the younger AD 1521–1554 The Young Life of a Rebel WYATT, SIR THOMAS (1521?-1554), the younger, conspirator, was the eldest and only surviving son of Sir Thomas Wyatt the elder [q.v.], by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Brooke, third lord Cobham. He was brought up as a catholic. He is described as 'twenty-one years and upwards' in the 'inquisition post mortem' of his father, which was dated 8 Jan. 1542/3. The Duke of Norfolk was one of his godfathers. In boyhood he is said to have accompanied his father on an embassy to Spain, where the elder sir Thomas Wyatt was threatened by the Inquisition. To this episode has been traced and irremovable detestation of the Spanish government, but the anecdote is probably apocryphal. All that is positively known of his relations with his father while the latter was in Spain is found in two letters which the elder Wyatt addressed from Spain to the younger, then fifteen years old. The letters give much sound moral advice. In 1537 young Wyatt married when barely sixteen. He succeeded on his father's death in 1542 to Allington Castle and Boxley Abbey in Kent, with much other property. But the estate was embarrassed, and he parted with some outlying lands on 30 Nov. 1543 to the king, receiving for them 3,669l. 8s. 2d. In 1542 he alienated, too, the estate of Tarrant in Dorset in favour of a natural son, Francis Wyatt, whose mother was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Edward Darrel of Littlecote. Wyatt was of somewhat wild and impulsive temperament. At an early age he had made the acquaintance of his father's disciple, Henry Howard, earl of surrey [q.v.], and during Lent 1543 he joined Surrey and other young men in breaking at night the windows of citizens' houses and of London churches. They were arrested and brought before the privy council on 1 April, and they were charged not merely with acts of violence, but with having eaten meat during Lent. Surrey explained that his efforts were directed to awakening the citizens of London to a sense of sin. Wyatt was inclined to deny the charges. He remained in the Tower till 3 May. In the autumn of 1543 Wyatt joined a regiment of volunteers which surrey raised at his own expense to take part in the siege of Landrecies. Wyatt distinguished himself in the military operations, and was highly commended by Thomas Churchyard, who was present (cf. CHURCHYARD, Pleasant Discourse of Court and of Wars, 1596). In 1544 Wyatt took part in the siege of Boulogne and was given responsible command next year. When Surrey became governor he joined the English council there (14 June 1545), Surrey, writing to Henry VIII, highly commended Wyatt's 'hardiness, painfulness, circumspection, and natural disposition to the war.' He seems to have remained abroad till the surrender of Boulogne in 1550. In November 1550 he was named a commissioner to delimit the English frontier in France, but owing to ill-health was unable to act. Subsequently he claimed to have served Queen Mary against the Duke of Northumberland when the duke attempted to secure the throne for his daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey. but he took no well-defined part in public affairs at home until he learned of Queen Mary's resolve to marry Philip of Spain. He regarded the step as an outrage on the nation's honour, but, according to his own account, never thought of publicly protesting against it until he received an invitation from Edward Courtenay [q.v.], earl of Devonshire, to join in a general insurrection throughout the country for the purpose of preventing the accomplishment of the queen's plan. He cheerfully undertook to raise Kent. Help was vaguely promised him by the French ambassador. Taking Steps The official announcement of the marriage was published on 15 Jan. 1553/4. Seven days later Wyatt summoned his friends and neighbours to meet at Allington Castle to discuss means of resistance. He offered, if they would attempt an armed rebellion, to lead the insurgent force. Like endeavours made by Courtenay, the earl of Suffolk, Sir James Crofts, and Sir Peter Carew, to excite rebellion in other counties failed [see CAREW, SIR PETER]. The instigators elsewhere were all arrested before they had time to mature their designs. Wyatt was thus forced into the position of chief actor in the attack on the government of the queen. He straightway published a proclamation at Maidstone which was addressed 'unto the commons' of Kent. He stated that his course had been approved by 'divers of the best of the shire.' Neighbours and friends were urged to secure the advancement of 'liberty and commonwealth,' which were imperilled by 'the queen's determinate pleasure to marry with a stranger.' Initiating the Rebellion Wyatt showed himself worthy of his responsibilities and laid his plans with boldness. Noailles, the French ambassador, wrote that he was 'estimé par deçà homme vaillant et de bonne conduicte;' and M. d'Oysel, the French ambassador in Scotland, who was at the time in London, informed the French king, his master, that Wyatt was 'ung gentil chevallier et fort estimé parmy ceste nation' (Ambassades de Noailles, iii. 15, 46). Fifteen hundred men were soon in arms under his command, while five thousand promised adherence later. He fixed his headquarters at the castle of Rochester. Some cannon and ammunition were secretly sent him up the Medway by agents in London; batteries were erected to command the passage of the bridge at Rochester and the opposite bank of the river. When the news of Wyatt's action reached the queen and government in London, a proclamation was issued offering pardon to such of his followers as should within twenty-four hours depart peaceably to their homes. Royal officers with their retainers were despatched to disperse small parties of Wyatt's associates while on their way to Rochester; Sir Robert Southwell broke up one band under an insurgent named Knevet; Lord Abergavenny defeated another reinforcement lead by a friend of Wyatt named Isley; the citizens of Canterbury rejected Wyatt's entreaties to join him, and derided his threats. Wyatt maintained the spirit of his followers by announcing that he daily expected succour from France, and circulated false reports of successful risings in other parts of the country. Some of his followers sent to the council offers to return to their duty, and at the end of January Wyatt's fortunes looked desperate. But the tide turned for a season in his favour when the government ordered the Duke of Norfolk to march form London upon Wyatt's main body, with a detachment of white-coated guards under the command of Sir Henry Jerningham. The manœuvre gave Wyatt an unexpected advantage. The duke was followed immediately by five hundred Londoners, hastily collected by one Captain Bret, and was afterwards joined by the sheriff of Kent, who had called out the trained bands of the county. The force thus embodied by the government was inferior in number to Wyatt's, and it included many who were in sympathy with the rebels. As soon as they came within touch of Wyatt's forces at Rochester, the majority of them joined him, and the duke with his principal officers fled towards Gravesend. Attacking London Wyatt set out for London at the head of four thousand men. He found the road open. 'Through Dartford and Gravesend he marched to Blackheath, where he encamped on 29 Jan. 1553/4. The government acknowledged the seriousness of the situation, and sent Wyatt a message inviting him to formulate his demands, but his was only a means of gaining time. On 1 Feb. 1554 Mary proceeded to the Guildhall and addressed the citizens of London on the need of meeting the danger summarily. Wyatt was proclaimed a traitor. Next morning more than twenty thousand men enrolled their names for the protection of the city. Special precautions were taken for the security of the court and the Tower; many bridges over the Thames within a distance of fifteen miles were broken down; all peers in the neighbourhood of London received orders to raise their tenantry; and on 3 Feb. a reward of land of the annual value of one hundred pounds a year was offered the captor of Wyatt's person. Captured & Tried For Treason The same day Wyatt entered Southwark, but his followers were alarmed by the reports of the government's activity. Many deserted, and Wyatt found himself compelled by the batteries on the Tower to evacuate Southwark. Turning to the south he directed hes steps toward Kingston, where he arrived on 6 Feb. (Shrove Tuesday). The river was crossed without difficulty, and a plan was formed to surprise Ludgate. On the way Wyatt hoped to capture St. James's Palace, where Queen Mary had taken refuge. But his schemes were quickly betrayed to the government. A council of war decided to allow him to advance upon the city and then to press on him from every quarter. He proceeded on 7 Feb. through Kensington to Hyde Park, and had a sharp skirmish at Hyde Park Corner with a troop of infantry. Escaping with a diminished following, he made his way past St. James's Palace. Proceeding by Charing Cross along the Strand and Fleet Street he reached Ludgate at two o'clock in the morning of 8 feb. The gate was shut against him, and he was without the means or the spirit to carry it by assault. His numbers dwindled in the passage through London, and he retreated with very few followers to Temple Bar. There he was met by the Norroy herald, and, recognising that his cause was lost, he made a voluntary submission. After being taken to Whitehall, he was committed to the Tower, where the lieutenant, Sir John Brydges (afterwards first Lord Chandos), received him with opprobrious reproaches. On his arrest the French ambassador, De Noailles, paid a tribute to his valour and confidence. He wrote of him as 'le plus vaillant et asseuré de quoye j'aye jamais ouy parler, qui a mis ladicte dame et seigneurs de son conseil en telle et si grande peur, qu'elle s'est veue par l'espace de huict jours en bransle de sa couronne' (Ambassades de Noailles, iii. 59). On 15 March he was arraigned at Westminster of high treason, was condemned, and sentenced to death (Fourth Rep. Deputy Keeper of Records, App. ii. pp. 244-5). Executed on Tower Hill On the day appointed for his execution (11 April) Wyatt requested Lord Chandos, the lieutenant of the Tower, to permit him to speak to a fellow-prisoner, Edward Courtenay 'to confess the truth of himself.' The interview lasted half an hour. It does not appear that he said anything to implicate Princess Elizabeth, but he seems to have reproached Courtenay with being the instigator of his crime (cf. FOXE, Acts and Monuments, iii. 41, and TYTLER, Hist. of Edward VI and Mary, ii. 320). Nevertheless, at the scaffold on Tower Hill he made a speech accepting full responsibility for his acts and exculpating alike Elizabeth and Courtenay (Chronicles of Queen Jane and Queen Mary, p. 73; BAYLEY, Hist. of the Tower, p. xlix). After he was beheaded, his body was subjected to all the barbarities that formed part of punishment for treason. Next day his head was hung to a gallows on 'Hay Hill beside Hyde Park,' and subsequently his limbs were distributed among gibbets in various quarters of the town (MACHYN, Diary, p. 60). His head was stolen on 17 April. Family Wyatt married in 1537 Jane, daughter of Sir William Hawte of Bishopsbourne, Kent. Through her he acquired the manor of Wavering. She bore him ten children, of whom three married and left issue. Of these a daughter Anna married Roger Twysden, grandfather fo Sir Roger Twysden [q.v.], and another Charles Scott of Egerton, Kent, of the family of Scott of Scotshall. The son George was restored to his estate of Boxley, Kent, by Queen Mary, and to that of Wavering by Queen Elizabeth in 1570. He collected materials for a life of Queen Anne Boleyn, the manuscript of which passed to his sister's grandson, Sir Roger Twysden. In 1817 there was privately printed by Robert Triphook from a copy of Wyatt's manuscript 'Extracts from the Life of Queen Anne Boleigne, by George Wyat. Written at the close of the XVIth century.' The full original manuscript in George Wyatt's autograph is among the Wyatt MSS., now the property of the Earl of Romney. Twysden also based on Wyatt's recollections his 'Account of Queen Anne Bullen,' which was first issued privately in 1808; it has little likeness to Wyatt's autograph 'Life.' The Wyatt MSS. contain letters and religious poems by George Wyatt, as well as a refutation of Nicholas Sanders's attacks on the characters of the two Sir Thomas Wyatts. George Wyatt, who died in 1623, was father of Sir Francis Wyatt [q.v.] Portrait A portrait of Sir Thomas Wyatt the younger in profile on panel belongs to the earl of Romney, and is now in his London residence, 4 Upper Belgrave Street. Sources [Dr. G. F. Nott's memoir (1816) prefixed to his edition of the Works of Sir Thomas Wyatt the elder (pp. lxxxix-xcviii) gives the main facts. An official account of Wyatt's rebellion was issued within a year of his execution, under the title of 'Historie of Wyate's rebellion, with the order and maner of resisting the same, etc., made and compyled by John Proctor [q.v.], Mense Januarii, anno 1555,' reprinted in the Antiquarian repertory, vol. iii. The account of the rebellion in Grafton's Chronicle is said to be from the pen of George Ferrers. Holinshed based his complete narrative of the rebellion in his Chronicle on Proctor's History, with a few hints from Grafton. A few particulars are added in Stowe's Annals. A full narrative with many documents form the Public Record Office is in R. P. Cruden's History of Gravesend, 1842, pp. 172 sq. See also Loseley MSS. edited by Kempe, 126-30; Diary of Henry Machyn, 1550-63 (Camden Soc.); Wriothesley's Chronicle (Camden Soc.); Lingard's Hist.; Froude's Hist.; Miscell. Genealogica et Heraldica, ii. 107 (new ser.); Bapst, Deux Gentilhommes-Poètes de la Cour de Henry VIII, pp. 266 seq.; Cave Browne's History of Boxley Parish, Maidstone, 1892; Wyatt MSS. in the possession of the Earl of Romney; information kindly given by the Hon. R. Marsham-Townshend.] is NOT responsible for the content of the GEDCOMs uploaded through the WorldConnect Program. The creator of each GEDCOM is solely responsible for its content.