The Phillips, Weber, Kirk, & Staggs families of the Pacific Northwest

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  • ID: I10067
  • Name: Thorfinn SIGURDSSON , Earl of Caithness & Orkney 1 2
  • Sex: M
  • ALIA: 18th Jarl of /Orkney/, Thorfinn "Black" Sigurdsson
  • Name: 01st Earl of CAITHNESS , Thorfinn Sigurdsson 3
  • Birth: ABT 1009 in Orkney Islands, Scotland 1 4
  • Death: ABT 1056 in Christchurch, Birsay, Orkney Islands, Scotland 5
  • Death: ABT 1065 2
  • Note:
    Thorfinn II ("The Black"), Jarl of Orkney and 1st Earl of (the entire territory of) Caithness, so created 1014 by his grandfather Malcolm II. [Burke's Peerage]

    ---------------------------

    EARLDOM of CAITHNESS (I) 1030?

    NORSE PREDECESSORS of the EARLS of ORKNEY - subject to King of Norway until after 1379

    Thorfinn II the Black, Earl of Caithness 1014, Jarl of one-third of Orkney (?) 1016, was b. 1009 and was made Earl of Caithness in 1014 by his grandfather the Scottish King Malcolm MacKenneth, who thereby claimed a right to dispose of territory over which he had previously had no control. Thorfinn "was precocious in growing up immediately to full manhood." Thorkel, son of Amundi of Sandwich in Hrossey, "the most accomplished of all men in the Orkneys," after having incurred the wrath of Jarl Einar II for having taken the part of the farmers against his high-handedness, went to Caithness, where he became devoted to the young Thorfinn and became known as Thorkel Fosterer and his right-hand man. After the death of Jarl Somerled (? 1015) a claim to a part of Orkney was made by, or for, Thorfinn. "When Earl Thorfinn grew up" the claim was renewed on the advice of Thorkel Fosterer (? Autumn 1017), but "Einar was slow to diminish his land," and when Thorfinn learned that, he got ready an army from Caithness and went out to the islands. After Jarl Brusiís mediation Thorfinn obtained a third of Orkney (? Spring 1018). Next year, Summer 1019, he sent Thorkel Fosterer to collect his revenues in Orkney, but Jarl Einar II accused him of having instigated Thorfinn to renew his claim to a third of Orkney, and Thorkel fled. Thorfinn sent him to Norway, Autumn 1019, to secure the support of the King, St. Olaf, against Jarl Einar II, and in the spring of 1020 the King invited Thorfinn to go to Norway. He went immediately and spent the summer of 1020 at Court, The King gave him a longship and another to Thorkel, and they returned to Orkney in the autumn of 1020. where Jarl Einar II prepared to attack Thorfinn. Jarl Brusi again made peace between them, and part of the settlement was that Jarl Einar II should go as Thorkelís guest to Sandwick. Here, however, Thorkel murdered him (after 14 Oct. 1020) and the same day fled to Norway, where the King approved his deed. Thorfinn went to Norway, but was unable to secure more than one-third for himself. Thorfinn by Thorkelís secret advice, accepted his third of Orkney as a fief from the King, and was thereafter reconciled with Thorkel, Thorfinn and Thorkel then returned to Caithness in the late summer 1021. When Jarl Brusi died (? 1030 autumn), Thorfinn became for the first time Jarl of all Orkney and Shetland. On the death of Thorfinnís maternal grandfather, King Malcolm MacKenneth, 25 Nov. 1034, another grandson, Duncan, son of Crinan, the Lay Abbot of Dunkeld, by Malcolmís elder dau. Bethoc, became King and, according to the Orkneyinga Saga, Karl Hundisson "took dominion over Scotland" and tried to put his sisterís son Moddan, who had many relatives and friends in Ireland, as Earl over Caithness, which was invaded (?) Summer 1035. Karl Hundisson was defeated by Thorfinn at sea, off Deerness, and again at Torfness in Moray; and Moddan was surprised and killed by Thorkel Fosterer at Thurso, where he had been joined by an Irish contingent. Thorfinn recovered Caithness, Sutherland and Ross, and raided through Moray down to Fife, In the autumn of 1036 Thorfinn surrendered one-third of Orkney to Brusiís son, Ragnvald II, who had been given the title of Jarl by King Magnus the Good (1036-1047) with Jarl Einar Rangmundís share (which St. Olaf had given as a fief to Jarl Brusi in the autumn of l021), and sent to Orkney with three longships provided by the King to receive his dominion. In the spring of 1037 Thorfinn and Ragnvald II went raiding in the Western Isles, "Scotlandís firths," and Ireland, and won a victory at Waterfirth in Skye. Thorfinn laid the land under him wherever they fared." The alliance lasted for eight years; Thorfinn then asked for a third of Orkney from Ragnvald II, because of the expense of maintaining his wife Ingibiorgís uncle, KaIf Arnesson, a refugee from Norway, and his large retinue. Ragnvald declined to surrender any part of his dominion and went to Norway in 1046, where he obtained a force of picked men from King Magnus I. He returned and engaged in two sea fights with Thorfinn; in the first Thorfinn was worsted, but in the second, with the help of Kalf Arnesson, he defeated Ragnvald, who fled to Norway; and Thorfinn took the whole Earldom of Orkney and Shetland in the autumn of 1046. Ragnvald obtained fresh support from King Magnus I, surprised Thorfinn in Hrossey and burned his house with his bodyguard in it; but Thorfinn and Ingibiorg escaped in the smoke and fled to Caithness. Ragnvald seized all Orkney, but he was surprised by Thorfinn, just before Yule, in Little Papey. The house was set on fire and Ragnvald II, who had escaped unarmed from the blaze, was slain on the sea-shore by Thorkel Fosterer. Thereafter Thorfinn had the whole Earldom of Orkney and Shetland once more and, in the spring of 1047 went to Norway and made his peace with King Magnus I. In (?) Spring 1048 he again went to Norway and was well received by King Harald III Hardradi, as he was in Denmark by King Sweyn III Estrithsson (1047-1076). From Denmark he went to Saxony, where he was well received by the Emperor Henry III (1028-1055), who provided him with horses for the journey to Rome, where he saw the Pope and "took absolution from him for all his misdeeds." On his return he lived "almost always in Birsay and let them build there Christchurch a splendid minster." He d. (? 1065) "of disease about the end" of the reign of King Harald Hardradi, who was killed at Stamford Bridge (25 Sep. 1066).

    He m., before 1038, Ingibiorg, dau. of Finn Arnesson (d.p. 1062), of Yriar in Austratt, Lenderman under Norway, later Jarl of Halland under Denmark (circa 1051), by Begliot, dau. of Halfdan Sigurdsson (b. p. 995), brother of King Harald III Hardradi. After Thorfinnís death she m. as his 1st wife (circa 1066) Malcolm III Ceannmor, King of Scots and had issue. Thorfinn had two sons who survived childhood, Paul and Erlend. [Complete Peerage, X:Appendix A:11-13]




    Father: Sigurd HLODVESSON , Jarl of Orkney & Caithness b: ABT 965 in Orkney Islands, Scotland
    Mother: Thorda Donada (Olith) Princess of SCOTLAND b: ABT 986 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland

    Marriage 1 Ingibiorg FINNSDOTTIR b: ABT 1023 in Yriar, Austratt, Norway
    • Married: BEF 1038 in 1st husband 1st wife 1 6
    Children
    1. Has Children Paul THORFINNSSON , Earl of Caithness & Orkney b: ABT 1038 in Orkney Islands, Scotland
    2. Has Children Erlend THORFINNSSON , Earl of Caithness & Orkney b: ABT 1040 in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland

    Sources:
    1. Title: Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999
      Page: 469
    2. Title: Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000
      Page: X:A:11-13
    3. Title: Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000
      Page: II:473
    4. Title: Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000
      Page: X:A:8-9
    5. Title: Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999
      Page: 469
      Text: c1056
    6. Title: Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000
      Page: X:A:13
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