The Phillips, Weber, Kirk, & Staggs families of the Pacific Northwest

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  • ID: I09248
  • Name: Harald MADDADSON , Earl of Caithness & Orkney 1 2
  • Sex: M
  • ALIA: 29th Jarl of /Orkney/, Harald II Maddadson
  • Name: 06th Earl of CAITHNESS , Harald Maddadson 3
  • Birth: 1130 in Caithness-shire, Scotland 1 2
  • Death: 1206 in Orkney Islands, Scotland 2
  • Note:
    Harald, Jt Jarl of Orkney with his cousin Rognvald and perhaps Jt Earl of Caithness too; born 1130; killed his cousin Harald ugni 1198 and so became sole Earl of Caithness; married 1st Afrika/Alfreka, sister of Duncan Earl of Fife; married 2nd Gorm(f)la(e)th/Hvafleda/Harlod/Hvorflod, daughter of Malcolm MacHeth, 1st Earl of Ross, supposedly himself son of Angus Earl of Moray. [Burke's Peerage]


    EARLDOM of CAITHNESS (VI, 7, 8, 9, and 10) 1170?

    NORSE PREDECESSORS of the EARLS of ORKNEY - subject to King of Norway until after 1379

    HARALD II Maddadsson or Macmadach (nephew of Jarl Paul the Silent and Jarl Slettmali), b. 1130, Jarl of half Orkney, so recognised by his second cousin once removed, Jarl Kali-Ragnvald III, before Easter, 22 Apr. 1139, at the instigation of Bishop John (? of Dunkeld). Left in charge of Kali-Ragnvald’s dominions during his absence (Summer 1151 to Dec. 1155), he went to Thurso in 1151. There he was taken prisoner by Eystein II Haraldsson, King of Norway (1142-1157), and had to ransom himself with three marks (24 oz.) of gold and recognise Eystein as his overlord. After the accession of King Malcolm IV (24 May 1153), Harald’s first cousin Erlend, son of Jarl Harald Slettmali, obtained investiture as Earl of half Caithness and asked for half the Orkneys. Jarl Harald II refused, but a truce was arranged during the winter of 1153. Erlend forthwith went to Norway and Harald returned to Caithness and spent the winter at Wick. Erlend obtained investiture from King Eystein II of Harald’s half of Orkney and returned to Orkney, where he was joined by Sweyn Asleifsson, who, after Easter (4 Apr. 1154), had received a grant from King Malcolm IV of all his lands and rights in Caithness, of which be had been deprived by Harald. On Michaelmas Day (29 Sep. 1154) they attacked Harald who had left his ships at Knarstane and taken refuge on shore; and on 30 Sep. 1154 Harald surrendered his share of Orkney to Erlend and returned to Caithness. In December Harald raided Orkney with four ships and 100 men, but failed to capture Erlend, so he returned to Thurso after 6 Jan. 1155. In 1155 Harald raided the Shetlands in order to attack Erlend the Young, who had abducted his mother Margaret, the Dowager Countess of Atholl, and besieged them at Mousa Broch. He was, however, reconciled with Erlend the Young and allowed him to marry his mother and become his supporter. In the summer Harald returned from Norway with seven ships, three of which were captured by Jarl Erlend III and Sweyn Asleifsson in the Shetlands; but Harald reached Thurso and Kali-Ragnvald III, who had been in Sutherland for the wedding of his daughter Ingigerd and Eric Slagbrellir, came to meet him. An alliance was made (25 Sep. t 156), and the two Jarls immediately started together against Jarl Erlend with thirteen ships and went to South Ronaldshay; but Jarl Erlend and Sweyn evaded them, raided Caithness and occupied Thurso. At the end of October Erlend and Sweyn made a surprise attack on Orkney, defeated Harald (24 Oct. 1156), nearly captured Kali-Ragnvald III and took fourteen of their ships and the latter’s treasure, which, however, Sweyn returned to him, Harald II and Kali-Ragnvald III took refuge in the latter’s house at Orphir. In their turn they made a surprise attack on Jarl Erlend at Damsay, found him dead drunk and killed him (21 Dec. 1156). They went to Kirkwall and were accepted as Jarls of Orkney. A reconciliation with Sweyn followed, but was not kept, and Jarl Harald hunted Sweyn to Hellisey, where he hid in a cave and escaped. A new reconciliation was then arranged by Jarl Kali-Ragnvald. This was confirmed on Good Friday, 29 Mar. 1157, and the two Jarls restored all Sweyn’s property. After that Sweyn, Thorbiorn Clerk and Eric Slagbrellir raided south and sacked St. Maryport in the Scillies (9 June 1157). After the murder of Jarl Kali-Ragnvald by Thorbiorn Clerk, on 20 Aug. 1158, Harald became sole Jarl of Orkney and Earl of at least half Caithness, until Harald, son of Eric Slagbrellir and grandson of Jarl Kali-Ragnvald, obtained investiture from King Magnus V Erlingsson (1162 to 1184) of his grandfather’s half of Orkney and the title of Jarl. After this he became known as Jarl Harald III Ungi (the Young) to distinguish him from Jarl Harald II Maddadsson Gamli (the Old). Jarl Harald Ungi then went to Scotland and obtained a grant of his grandfather’s half of Caithness from William the Lion. The dates of these investitures are uncertain (see p. 26, note a," infra); but Jarl Harald II Maddadsson refused to give up half Orkney to Jarl Harald Ungi who gathered a force in Caithness. But the old Jarl gathered a larger force in South Ronaldshay and came to Caithness. Jarl Harald III Ungi, with his brother Elm, his brother-in-law Hlifolf Skalli the Sutherlander, who was his chief counsellor, and his kinsman Sigurd Murt, son of Ivar Galli, were defeated and killed at the battle of Wick in 1198. In 1195 Jarl Harald II went to Bergen to make his peace with Sverri, King of Norway, and obtain pardon for having allowed Sigurd Magnusson to make Orkney the base for his insurrection. King Sverri pardoned him on onerous terms, Jarl Harald was deprived of the Shetlands and had to surrender half the fines of Orkney to the King. The lands of all those Orkneymen who had been killed at Floruvagar, when Sigurd was defeated and slain on 3 Apr. 1194, were confiscated by the King who was to have his own bailiffs in Orkney to collect his half of the fines and the revenues from the confiscated lands. In 197 Jarl Harald, at the instigation of his wife Gormflaeth, dau. of Malcolm MacHeth, 1st Earl of Ross, appears to have sent Thorfinn, the eldest son by his second marriage, to invade Moray, but he was defeated near Inverness. King William the Lion came north to Caithness, destroyed the castle of Thurso, took Harald prisoner and kept him at Roxburgh until Thorfinn delivered himself up as a hostage for his father. Harald was released and returned to Orkney, and next year defeated Harald Ungi at Wick (1198) and seized Harald Ungi’s half of Caithness, King William on this sold Caithness, subject to tribute, to Ragnvald Gudredsson, King of Man and the Isles. During the Mann occupation of Caithness Jarl Harald II remained in Orkney, but in 1200 he caused one of King Ragnvald’s sysselmen, Hlifolf the Quick, to be murdered and reconquered Caithness. John, Bishop of Caithness, was captured at Scrabster and tortured (a). News of this was brought to King William during Advent 1201 and in January 1202 he either led or sent an army into Caithness, after having, according to the Saga, caused his hostage Thorfinn, Jarl Harald’s son, to he blinded in Roxburgh Castle, where he died (? 1202). Jarl Harald made his peace with King William and was allowed to retain all Caithness, but the fourth penny on all lands had to he paid to the King. Jarl Harald II Maddadsson d. 1206.

    He m., 1stly, Alfreka, dau. of Duncan, 4th Earl of Fife (1136-1154), Regent of Scotland 1153, but repudiated her (probably after the death of her father) during Jarl Kali-Ragnvald’s absence on pilgrimage, having had issue. He m., 2ndly, Hvorflod (Hvafieda) or-in Gaelic-Gormflaeth or Gormlath, da. of Malcolm MacHeth, sat Earl of Ross (1157-1168), by a sister of Somerled, King of the Isles (Sudreys) 1156-1164 and had further issue, Thorfinn, (?) Henry or Heinrek, David, John, and three daughters. [Complete Peerage, X:Appendix A:22-25]

    (a) According to the Saga, this was done by order of the Jarl, who caused the Bishop's tongue to be cut out and then had him blinded. The Saga records that by a miracle wrought by St. Trollhaena, to whom the Bishop had prayed, his speech and sight were restored. Dr. A O Anderson quotes a letter from Pope Innocent III to Biarni, Bishop of Orkney, written in Aug or Sep 1202, in which it appears that Jarl Harald was not held to have been directly responsible for the outrage and no mention is made of the blinding. In the same note Dr. Anderson quotes Fordun to the effect that the Bishop retained "in some sort" the use of his tongue and one of his eyes.

    Father: Madach (Madadd) 1st Earl of ATHOLL b: ABT 1085 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland
    Mother: Margaret Hakonsdottir of ORKNEY b: ABT 1113 in Orkney Islands, Scotland

    Marriage 1 Alfreka (Afrika) of FIFE b: ABT 1140 in Methil, Fifeshire, Scotland
    • Married: in 1st wife - repudiated after death of her father 4 5
    1. Has Children Margaret HARALDSDOTTIR b: ABT 1157 in Caithness-shire, Scotland

    Marriage 2 Gormflaeth MacHeth Countess of ORKNEY b: ABT 1143 in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland
    • Married: BEF 1160 in 2nd wife 6
    1. Has Children John HARALDSSON , Earl of Caithness & Orkney b: ABT 1162 in Orkney Islands, Scotland

    1. Title: Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999
      Page: 469
    2. Title: Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000
      Page: X:A:22-25
    3. Title: Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000
      Page: II:474
    4. Title: Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999
      Page: 359
    5. Title: Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000
      Page: X:A:25
    6. Title: Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999
      Page: 469
      Text: no date, 2nd wife
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