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  • ID: I08153
  • Name: Hubert de BURGH , 1st Earl of Kent 1 2 3 4
  • Sex: M
  • ALIA: 02nd\1st Earl of /Kent/, Hubert de Burgh
  • Birth: BEF 1172 in Burgh, Aylsham, Norfolk, England 5
  • Death: 12 MAY 1243 in Banstead, Epsom, Surrey, England 4
  • Burial: Black Friars, Holborn, London, Middlesex, England
  • Event: Bullet 1215 named in MAGNA CHARTA, King John advisor
  • Note:
    Note: Even though Hubert had a male heir (John) by his 1st wife, John did not inherit the Earldom of Kent, because, according to the charter creating the Earldom, it could only be inherited through issue by Margaret of Scotland.

    EARLDOM OF KENT (II, 1) 1227 to 1243

    HUBERT DE BURGH, whose parentage is unknown (a), became Chamberlain to John, Count of Mortain in or before 1198, possib1y as early as Richard's captivity in Germany 1193-94, and received Croxton from John, losing it on the King's return, and recovering it after he was made justiciar. He remained Chamberlain until 1205. At John's accession he became the most important official in the country, and received many grants of lands, wardships and offices. In the autumn of 1199 he was with the King in France. He was Sheriff of Hereford, 1200-1203; of Somerset and Dorset, 1200-1203; of Cornwall, 1202; of Berks, 1202-1203; of Lincoln, 1208-12; of Surrey, 1215; of Kent, 1215-26; of Norfolk and Suffolk, 1215, I217-25; and of Westmorland (as guardian of the heir of Vesci), 1228-34. In 1200 he was an Ambassador to Portugal to treat for John's marriage with a daughter of the King, but while the embassy was on its way John married Isabel of Angoulême. Constable of Windsor Castle circa January 1200/1; Constable of Dover Castle and Warden of the Cinque Ports during pleasure, March 1201/2; Constable of Grosmont Castle, &c., 26 July 1201. In May 1201 he was appointed Warden of the Welsh Marches, and was made custodian of Prince Arthur at Falaise Castle. On 30 July 1201 he had a grant of the manor of Cawston, Norfolk, from the King for his "maintenance in our service"; he also had a grant of Cleeve in Somerset (late of William de Rournare, who died 1198), and gave the services of his free men there to the Abbey founded by Roumare. This gift was confirmed by John in 1201/2. On 6 February 1201/2 he was commissioned to fortify Dunster Castle. On 15 April 1202 he was appointed custodian of lancaster castle, and on 20 May following of Wallingford Castle. On 16 August 1202 the King gave him the land of Emma [de Beaufoy], wife of Gilbert de Norfolk, in Ludham, Notts, and Creak, Norfolk. He had letters of protection in June 1203 while engaged in the King's service. John sent him and the Bishop of Ely to Philip of France, offering to attend Philip's court if given a safe conduct going and coming, but Philip refused. He held the castle of Chinon for John, but after a year's siege was obliged to evacuate it, and in the fight to break through the French lines, was severely wounded and taken prisoner on 23 June 1205. Possibly owing to the gravity of his injuries, he does not appear in public affairs for several years, and seems to have lost his offices. His duties as Sheriff of Lincoln were discharged by deputies 1208-12. He was, however, given custody of Sleaford Castle in 1208, and in July of that year was witness to a charter at Rockingham. His knight's fees, amounting to more than 50, in Norfolk, Suffolk, Berks, Surrey, Hants, Somerset, Dorset, Wilts, Essex, and Cambridge were recorded in 1212. From August 1213 to January 1214/5 he was Seneschal of Poitou and Niort. From June to October 1214 he was with the King in France, being in Sep. a party to the truces made with the Count of La Marche and the King of France. From June 1215 till July 1232, he was justiciar. At the meeting at Runnymede he sided with King John and was named in Magna Carta, and was one of those appointed to uphold the 25 Barons who were made custodians thereof. On 25 June 1215, as Justiciar, he was given the custody of the county of Kent and the castle of Canterbury, and the custody of Dover Castle during pleasure. On 29 June 1215 he had the custody of the honour of Peverel and was appointed Chamberlain of London and Keeper of the Exchange. On 19 July following he was given custody of the castle of Hereford, and on 24 July of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk (i.e. as Sheriff) and of the castles of Norwich and Oxford. From 23 June 1216 he defended Dover Castle against Princc Louis and the Barons, and, being hard beset, asked for a truce in order to notify the King. After John's death (19 October) lie was asked to surrender, and was promised the Earldoms of Norfolk and Suffolk in hereditary right his brother Thomas, who had been taken prisoner at Norwich, joining in the request. However, Louis thought it better to raise the siege and to secure the rest of England. Louis, being defeated at Lincoln 10 May 1217, asked for aid from France, and on 24 August a fleet of 24 great ships and many small was sent under Eustace the Monk, a notorious Channel freebooter. Hubert, considering it of the greatest importance to prevent a landing, went out with a small fleet, in defiance of the advice of Willial Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, and other magnates, avoided the enemy, and then came down on them with the wind and defeated them, Eustace being slain. On 11 September 1217 Hubert, as Justiciar, was a party to the treaty of peace made by Louis at Lambeth before he left England. On 28 Sep. 1217 he was appointed Warden of the Mint of London. By the death of the Earl of Pembroke, 14 May 1219, Hubert became, next to Pandulf, the Pope's Legate, the most important official in the land, and, with the aid of Archbishop Langton, overcame the powerful "foreign party," led by Piers des Roches, Bishop of Winchester, which sought to secure for itself all the chief offices of the State. In 1221 he demanded that the royal castles, which had been seized by the Barons, and some of which were in the hands of foreigners like Faukes de Breauté (who held six), should be restored to the Crown. In 1222 he suppressed a riot in London with great severity. The next year Henry III assumed the reins of government, and the Barons ineffectually demanded tbat Hubert should be deprived of his offices, for the king granted him, 30 December 1223, custody of the castles of Rochester, Norwich, Oxford, Dover, Canterbury and Hereford. In the next year the Earl of Chester with Faukes de Breauté and others combined against Hubert, who, however, overcame them, and on 15 August 1224 captured Breauté's castle of Bedford, and secured his banishment. In the same month he was made guardian of the lands of the Earl of Arundel, and in 1226 guardian of the lands and heir of Hugh Bigod, Earl of Norfolk. On 11 February 1224/5 Hubert, as justiciar, was a witness of the confirmation of Magna Carta. On 19 February 1226/7, eight days after the King was declared to be of age, He was created EARL OF KENT, and had a grant of certain manors, and of £50 p.a. from the county in lieu of the third penny of the pleas thereof. On 27 April 1228 he was appointed justiciar for life, and was given the custody of the castle and port of Dover, and of the castles of Canterbury, Rochester, and Montgomery. The failure of the Welsh expedition in September 1228, though Montgomery was relieved was attributed to Hubert, whose policy was losing him the favour of the King. On Hubert's advice a new castle was built, but when it was almost finished the Welsh made it a condition of the treaty of peace that it should be razed at the King's expense. Next year saw an open breach between the King and Hubert, who sought to restrain the former's ambition for foreign conquests. Through Hubert's influence the call to the Norman expedition proved disappointing; and when the army assembled at Portsmouth, at Michaelmas 1229, it could not be transported owing to the lack of ships and supplies, whereupon the angry King accused Hubert of being a traitor in the pay of France. A reconciliation was, however, effected, and on 4 October 1229 Hubert and his wife Margaret had a grant of the manor, castle, and honour of Knaresborough, and on 6 October Hubert had a graiit of the honour of Eye. On 9 August 1230 he had a grant of the honour of Hatfield Peverel, on 8 November received custody of the lands and marriage of the heir of Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester, and on 10 November had licence to build a castle at Hadleigh, Essex. He accompanied the King on his expedition to Poitou and Gascony, for the failure of which he was blamed, and was a joint commissioner to treat with the French. In 1231 the Archbishop of Canterbury, with whom he had a dispute about Tonbridge Castle (he being guardian of the Earl of Gloucester), made ill reports of him at Rome, in particular as to his wife's kinship with his previous wife, and in July of that year his bitter enenly Piers des Roches, Bishop of Winchester, returned from his pilgrimage to the Holy Land. A. rupture between Hubert and the King was, however, avoided then, for on 16 June 1232 he was made Justiciar of Ireland; on 2 July the King took oath to observe the charters he had granted to Margaret, Countess of Kent, and Hubert; and on 7 July Hubert had a grant for life of the custody of the Tower of London and of the castles of Odiham and Windsor. But within three weeks Hubert's downfall was accomplished. Henry had long chafed at the restraints which his powerful minister imposed on him, and now found an excuse to break him in the charges brought against Hubert by the Pope. On 29 July he was deprived of the Justiciarship, and in August was ordered to surrender the castles of Dover, Canterbury, Rochester, Windsor, Odiham, Hertford, Colchestcr, the Tower, and all his other castles. Hubert fled for sanctuary to Aderton, thence to Bury, and from there to Brentwood, taking refuge in the chapel of Boisars. He was forcibly seized by his pursuers, taken to London and thrown into the Tower. Thereupon the Bishop of London threatened to excommunicate those who had thus violated sanctuary, and his captors took Hubert back to the chapel. Hunger eventually forced him to surrender, and he was taken again to the Tower. He was deprived of his earldom,(") and his treasure in the Temple was seized, 15 December 1232, by the King, who, however, relenting somewhat, allowed him to keep some of his lands. Meanwhile his wife Margaret had also taken sanctuary at Bury, and grants were made for her sustenance. In the new year, about January 1232/3, he was imprisoned at Devizes. His old enemy the Bishop of Winchester (Piers des Roches) was now nearly all-powerful, and sought to obtain the custody of the castle. Hubert, being apprised of this, and fearing that the Bishop would murder him, escaped from the castle on 29 September with the help of two soldicrs, and took sanctuary in the church of St. John. His warders violated sanctuary and took him back to the castle, whereupon the Bishop of Salisbury excommunicated them, and before 15 October Hubert was allowed to return to the church. The King now ordered the Sheriff to starve him out, but before the end of the month Richard Siward and Gilbert Basset, who wcre enemies of the Bishop of Winchester, rescued him and took him to Strigul (Chepstow) Castle, where he was under the protection of Richard, the Earl Marshal, who had been driven into rebellion by the Bishop. In April 1234 Archbishop Edmund of Abingdon, at a Council at Westminster, persuaded the King to dismiss the Bishop of Winchester, who had become extremely unpopular on account of the numerous greedy foreigners he had encouraged. On the fall of the Bishop, Hubert was pardoned and taken into favour again, being reconciled to the King 27 May. His lands were restored, and he recovered his earldom, the annuity of £50 per annum as Earl of Kent being ordered to be paid to him 3 June 1234. He did not, however, recover the justiciarship, and for the rest of his life had little part in public affairs. The secret marriage of his daughter Margaret with the young Earl of Gloucester again made trouble with the King in 1237, but he satisfied the King that he had no part in or knowledge of the marriage. In July 1237 the Papal Legate effected a reconciliation between Hubert and the Bishop of Winchester and others, and Hubert made a vow not to take up arms again. In July 1239, however, the King revived many old charges against him, and though Hubert answered them satisfactorily, he had to give up four of his castles, three in Wales and one in Essex; in October they were reconciled once more and Hubert's castles were restored.

    Hubert married, 1stly, Beatrice, widow of Doun (Dodo) BARDOLPH (who died before 24 February 1204/5), and daughter and heir of William DE WARENNE, of Wormegay, Norfolk, by his 1st wife, Beatrice, daughter of Hugh Le PIERREPONT. She died before 17 December 1214. He married, 2ndly, probably a few days before her death, Isabel, COUNTESS OF GLOUCESTER, widow of Geoffrey (DE MANDEVILLE), Earl of Essex, and previously the divorced wife of KING JOHN. She died 14 October 1217. Hubert married, 3rdly, in June 1221, at York, Margaret, sister of Alexander, KING OF SCOTLAND, and eldest daughter of William the Lion, KING OF SCOTLAND (1165-1214), by Ermengarde, daughter of Richard, Vicomte of Beaumont in Maine. Hubert died leaving male issue (a2), 12 May 1243, at his manor of Banstead, Surrey, and was buried in the Church of Black Friars, London, when the Earldom of Kent became extinct. His widow, Margaret died in 1259, and was buried in the same Church of the Black Friars. [Complete Peerage VII:133-42, (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)]

    (a) According to Dugdale's 'Baronage', he was son of a brother of William FitzAldelin, steward of Henry II and lord of Connaught, but no definite evidence is adduced for this statement. For this supposed descent see Round, 'Feudal England'. According to Blomfield's 'Norfolk', he was son of Reyner de Burgh (probably of Burgh near Yarmouth), by Joan, one of the three daughters and coheirs of John, son of Sir William Punchard (by Alice, daughter and coheir of Fulk d'Oyry, lord of Gedney). A Reyner de Burgo, temp. John, took the Baron's side, his surety in making peace being his nepos John de Burgo (query son of Hubert). Blomfield also says Sir Reyner (son of William) de Burgh in the time of Richard I conveyed lands at Burgh and Amerton to John and Robert, sons of Ernald de Burgh, that Burgh was held by the Crown, but was in 1201 given to Hubert. There is no authority but Blomfield's for this descent, which is contradicted in one particular by Hubert's charter, circa 1330 (as Earl of Kent and Justiciar), giving the advowson of Oulton church, Norfolk, to Walsingham "for the soul of 'Alice' my mother who rests in the church of Walsingham". According to Blomfield he had a grandmother 'Alice'. An early charter of Hubert's circa 1201, as King's Chamberlain, confirms to Castle Acre the church of Newton All Saints given by his antecessor William de Boseville (possibly his wife's ancestor). This grant is witnessed by Hameline, Earl Warenne (who d. 1202), William de Warenne, and Hubert's brothers, Geoffrey, Archdeacon of Norwich, and Thomas (de Burgo). In 1221 Geoffrey de Burgh, then Bishop of Ely, as nepos of Alice de Nerford, daughter of John Punchard and widow of Robert de Nerford, dedicated a chapel at Creake, Norfolk, which afterwards became an Austin Abbey. In 1234 it was stated that the manors of Burgh, Beeston, Newton and Suterton were "the inheritance" of Hubert de Burgh. Hubert had a grant of lands in Aylsham and of the manor of Cawston (about 6 miles west of Burgh) from King John. Walter Rye, 'Norfolk Antiq. Misc.', suggests that Hubert came from Burgh near Aylsham, not Burgh in Flegg Hundred. He may have been son of William de Burgh who was party in a dispute as to the church of Colby (north of Aylsham) in 1199 and 1200.

    (a2) He had issue by his 1st wife Beatrice, a son named John, knighted 3 June 1229. Though son and heir of his father, he was excluded from the succession to the Earldom of Kent by the limitation in that creation thereof. By his 3rd wife, Margaret of Scotland, he had a daughter Margaret, who married Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. She dvp. at Dover, and endowed it with the manors of Eastbridge and Honychild. He was also a benefactor of Welbeck Abbey, of Combermere Abbey, and of St. Radegund's, Bradsole. The estimation in which Hubert was held by the public is possibly fairly expressed in the speech which Mat. Paris attributes to the blacksmith who refused to manacle Hubert when he was arrested at Brentwood: "Judge me as you like, may God have mercy on my soul, for as the Lord liveth I will never put irons on him even to my death by any punishment. Is he not that Hubert most faithful and courageous who has so oft snatched England from spoiling by foreigners and restored it to itself? Who served his lord King John in Gascony, Normandy and elsewhere with such fidelity that he was sometimes forced to eat horses, so that our enemies themselves praised his wonderful fidelity? Who preserved Dover for us, the key of England, against the King of France and his skilled forces for a long time, and secured our safety by overthrowing our enemies on the sea? What about Lincoln, what about Bedford, to name some of his worthy deeds? May God judge between him and you, for you treat him unjustly and cruelly, rendering evil for good, yea the very worst for the very best." Hubert's arms are given in Harl. MS. as Lozengy argent and vair. Legend, sigillum Huberti de Burgo comitis cancie.

    --------------------------------------

    Hubert's family was of one Burgh, but he received a 2nd Burgh in 1201, according to the following, which also indicates that Reyner may be a son of Hubert, as Reyner was of Burgh St Margaret & Mary, which is part of the Burgh indicated below (Reyner was NOT a father of Hubert, as indicated below).

    BURGH.

    From Domesday book we learn that the Conqueror had in Burc, 20 acres of land, which was valued in his lordship of Castre, and Godric was steward of it for the King, who had also another considerable manor in this town, which Guert was owner of in the reign of King Edward, containing 60 acres of land, 8 of meadow, and one villain, 8 freemen also held under Guert 27 acres of land, and 6 of meadow; and there were two carucates among them, with 2 salt works, valued then at 10s. at the survey at 20s.

    This then belonged to the farm or lordship of Causton in Norfolk, but formerly not, being added to it by the Conqueror, and Roger was made the reeve of it. Burgh was 10 furlongs long, and 8 broad, and paid 2s. gelt, with 3 farthings, and many held lands there.

    Several persons farmed this lordship with that of Causton, of the Crown. William de Cheney, sheriff in the reign of Henry II. Robert Fitz-Roger in 1197; but King John in his 3d year, Ao. 1201, granted it to Hubert de Burgh, after Earl of Kent.

    This was probably son of Sir Reyner, who was son of Sir William de Burgh, and conveyed lands here and in Almerton, by fine, to John and Robert, sons of Ernald de Burgh, in the reign of King Richard I.

    In the 21st of Henry III. is entered the marriage agreement between Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, and Margaret, daughter of Hubert de Burgo, and Margaret his wife, daughter of the King of Scots.

    In the 31st of that King, Margaret, widow of Hubert de Burgh, released all her right, or the 3d part of this manor, with those of Causton and Newton, and many others, to John de Burgh her son-inlaw; who granted for her life in dowry, the lordship of Porteslade, and advowson of the vicarage, those of Aldrington, and the patronage of the rectory, Westhall and Sutherton in Sussex, and Chilton manor, &c. in Somersetshire.

    In the 3d of Edward I. William de Burgh claimed free warren,and a free fishery from Burgh bridge to Stokesby Flech, which usedto be common, but now is several; and in the 15th a free marketweekly on Monday, in his manor; and a fair yearly, on the vigil, theday of St. Margaret, and for 6 days following, as a grant to him fromKing Henry III.

    From: 'West Flegg hundred: Burgh', An Essay towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: volume 11 (1810), pp. 152-156. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=78772&strquery=burgh flegg Date accessed: 16 June 2012.




    Father: Walter (William) de BURGH b: ABT 1145 in Burgh, Aylsham, Norfolk, England
    Mother: Alice b: ABT 1152

    Marriage 1 Beatrice de WARENNE , Heiress of Wormegay b: ABT 1175 in Wormegay, Downham, Norfolk, England
    • Married: AFT 1205 in 2nd husband 1st wife 4
    Children
    1. Has Children John de BURGH , of Banstead, Sir b: 1210 in Banstead, Epsom, Surrey, England
    2. Has No Children Reyner de BURGH & Congeham, Sir b: ABT 1212 in Burgh St Margaret & Mary, Flegg, Norfolk, England

    Marriage 2 Isabel FITZROBERT , 3rd Countess of Gloucester b: ABT 1173 in Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England
    • Married: SEP 1217 in 3rd husband 2nd wife 6 7

    Marriage 3 Margaret Princess of SCOTLAND b: ABT 1193 in Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland
    • Married: 19 JUN 1221 in York, Yorkshire, England (3rd wife) 8
    Children
    1. Has No Children Margaret de BURGH b: 1222 in Kent, England

    Sources:
    1. Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
      Page: 94-29
    2. Title: Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999
      Page: cxx
      Text: Created Earl of Kent, Feb 1226/7. Although he had sons, the earldom expired with him.
    3. Title: Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999
      Page: cxviii
      Text: married Isabel FitzRobert Countess of Gloucester, she died only a few days after marriage.
    4. Title: Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000
      Page: VII:133-142
    5. Title: Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000
      Page: VII:133-142
      Text: Chamberlain possibly as early as 1193 (of age)
    6. Title: Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999
      Page: cxviii
      Text: 1217
    7. Title: Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000
      Page: VII:141
      Text: a few days before her death
    8. Title: Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000
      Page: VII:141-2
      Text: June 1221
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