Nicholson

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  • ID: I54
  • Name: William NICHOLSON
  • Surname: NICHOLSON
  • Given Name: William
  • Sex: M
  • Birth: ? in Of Berwick-upon-Tweed, England
  • Death: 1690 in England
  • Burial: 9 May 1690 Holy Trinity church, Berwick-upon-Tweed, England
  • _UID: F1908F6F9731D5118680EF90A100BA0B182C
  • Note:
    1. William Nicholson (d. 1690 Berwick-upon-Tweed, England)

    William Nicholson, the English ancestor of the Nicholson family of Anne Arundel County and the Eastern Shore of Maryland, was a gentleman of Berwick-upon-Tweed, England in the 17th Century. He was buried at Durham, England, May 9, 1690, and his will was proved in the probate court of Durham in 1691. His wife, Anne, was buried November 2, 1681. It is of record that contrary to a provision of the burial act of England, she was buried in linen garments, and for this offense her husband was fined. From his will and inventory at the time of his death (see link for transcripts of will and inventory), it is clear that William Nicholson was a wealthy man. However, nothing is known about the source of his wealth. William and Anne Nicholson had nine children, five of whom were daughters, Margaret, Eleanor, Mary, Anne, and Elizabeth. One of their sons was Joseph Nicholson who lived only two years. Three of their sons were successively named William Nicholson, two of them dying in infancy. The third son, William Nicholson, was baptized at Berwick-upon-Tweed, February 22, 1665/66. This William Nicholson (1665/66 - 1719) became the founder of the family in America.

    2. Transcript of Will of William Nicholson, proved in Durham in 1690. Original at Durhan University Archives

    In the Name of God Amen I William Nicholson the elder of the Borough of Barwick upon Tweed gentleman, being at this time sick and weak in body but blessed be to God of perfect and sound memory do make this my Last Will and Testament. Hereby, bequeathing my Soul to God who gave it me hoping for Eternal Salvation only by and through the alone merritts of his Dear Sonn & my precious Redeemer the Lord Jesus Christ; and by body to the Earth to be decently Interred at the Discretion of my executors William Nicholson my sonn and my nephew Cuthbert Brady of (? Birwick illegible - could be upon Tweed but it does not look like it) hereafter named; And for what worldly Estate the Lord hath been pleased to bestow upon me My mind and will is That all my houses burgages or tenements with the Appurtences Scituate Standing Lying & Coming within the Borough of Barwick upon Tweed aforesaid, And all my household goods moneys Plate & other my personal Estate whatsoever, of what kind or nature soever; And all other my Real and personal Estate whatsoever in any other place or places shall be sold and Disposed of after my Decease by my Executors William Nicholson and Cuthbert Brady hereafter named, with and for the payment of all my Just Debts by me owing & justly indebted to any person or persons whatsoever And for payment of my funeral charges; And I do hereby Fully Impower my Said Executors William Nicholson and Cuthbert Brady to make sale of my said Burgages & tenements with the appurtones Scituate in Barwick aforesaid, And all other of my personal Estate whatsoever and every of them to any persons whatsoever for payment of my Said Just Debts and funeral charges; And my will is and I hereby bequeath unto my oldest Daughter Elliner, the new wife of John Forster the sume of (Ten?) pounds to be paid her forth & out of my said Real and personal Estate by my said Executors William Nicholson and Cuthbert Brady hereafter named, from and after my Said Just Debts & funeral charges are paid or Secured to be paid; And after the Same is paid my Will is, and I hereby give and bequeath the remainder of the money obtained for the Same, to my Children hereafter named in manner as is here after Expenses (that is to say his note not mine) After all my Just Debts and funeral charges & the aforesaid sume of Ten pounds to my Said Daughter Elliner is cleerly and fully paid out of my Said Real and personal Estate, which I hereby charge with & for the payment of the same Then my Minde and Will is and I hereby bequeath unto my Sonn william Nicholson The one full moyety or halfe parte of what shall happen to be behinde & over the payment of my Just Debts funeral charges & the aforesaid Sume of Tenn pounds to my said Daughter Elliner; And the other moyety or full half parte thereof I hereby give and bequeath unto my Three daughters Margaret Nicholson, Anne Nicholson & Elizabeth Nicholson, to be equally divided amongst my Said Three daughters, in three equal partes, every one of them having an Equal proporcon, of the Said other Moyety Last above bequeathed; and I do hereby nominate authorize & appoint my Said sonne William Nicholson and my Said Nephew Cuthbert Brady to be Executors of this my Last Will and Testament, hereby revoaking renouncing and Disannulling all other & former wills by me heretofore made, making this my Last Will & Testament firm & stable; And I do hereby declare this to be my Last Will & Testament In Witnesse thereof I ? here unto set my hand & Seal the fifteenth day of April in the second year of the Reigne of our Sovereign Lord & Lady William & Mary by the Grace of God King & Queen of England Scotland France & Ireland, Defenders of the faith Etc. Anno Domini 1690

    Wm Nicholson (signature) plus seal

    Signatures of witnesses hard to read first one and last two partially torn off)

    3. From William's will, he mentioned "That all my houses burgages or tenements with the Appurtences"... (The distinction - burgages and tenements are land holdings, with or without houses standing thereon.) A burgage was freehold and conferred on the owner the status of burgess (e.g., Colonial Virginia House of Burgesses) and with that all sorts of rights and duties within the borough, possibly including the right to vote in municipal or maybe even parliamentary elections. A tenement was leasehold, held usually on a rental of a specified length - but in modern parlance in Scotland a 'tenement' has come to mean a working-class apartment.
    4. Inventory of possession of William Nicholson at the time of his death (items are listed as they appeared in inventory and best transcribed from a copy of the original - in some cases with explanations in ( ): 2 bowlstors (Not really bolsters in the modern sense - feather pillows most likely) 2 pair blankitts 4 rugs & a pair of olde hangings (the rugs could be for use on either floor or bed. The hangings are probably cloth wall hangings of some description) a Resting chair half dozn Turkey Work chairs (Turkey work was a type of fabric weave) 2 cushins a Bilyard Table (Not billiards in the modern sense - more like table croquet at this period but this again rather an upmarket piece of kit.) A Drawing Table (Not a modern architects drawing table! He means a [with]drawing room table - a portable one that could be moved about as required. 5 chaires a bedstead a other bed with bowlstor a suite of curtains a pair of Blankitts a coverlid A Rug a Table 7 chaires & A court cubbort (A court cubbort - A court cupboard is the predecessor of the chest of drawers - a double cupboard below with another, set back above, highly carved and decorated) . a Bedstead curtains with counterpaine (quilt or bedspread) a other bed with bowlstor 2 pair Blankitts 2 coverlids a pair of virginals with standard 5 senses (senses means octaves - one virginal would have been a luxury in a wealthy home) 7 Turkey work chairs a map A table A carpitt a trunk with 2 cushins a bedstead vallineo (valence) Curtains counterpaine with window curtains A feather bed with bowlstor 3 blankitts A Rug A pair of hangings 8 Chaires A Table with carpitt A case of Drawers 5 picktures A glass image (mirror) 2 wood stands bed with bowelstor blankitts and coverlid A suite of hangins 12 chaires A bedstead A glass (mirror) A chimney board (Used to close up a fireplace not in use [at least that's the more recent meaning]. Just possibly an embroidered firescreen - which you'll have seen - on an adjustable pole to protect ladies' complexions from the heat of the fire) A Table and A Great Chair A bedstead and curtains another bed with bowelstor A pair of blankitts a Rug a coverlid a carpitt a cobord (cupboard) A furn (?) 6 chaires a wandis(?) Chair (A set of six chairs and a carver [one with arms] Tenn picktures a hanging chelf(?) with cushin (Probably a wall shelf with cover/vallance - maybe to display his silver plate)2 Trunks (Travelling trunks for clothes.) 2 cushins a Drawing Table 2 Round Tables a chist (chest) 2 carpitts with 2 map?s 6 Picktures one soing geas A clock 15 chaires 50 yards of stuf (fabric) 2 bed Tirkes(?) with 6 pounds of linnen cloath 2 bedsteads a suite of curtains 2 other beds with bowlstors 2 pair blankitts coverlid A Table A cubbord a chist (chest) 4 stoules A copper pann a bedstead with curtains & other bed with coverlid A chist (chest) a cubbet(cupboard) with 7 olde chaires with stoules 2 beds 2 bowlstors A pair of blankitts 2 coverlids an old cubbord 2 foot pares (?)with a chist (chest)3 beds 3 bowlstors 3 coverlids 3 blankitts A suite of hangins and 2 full curtains vallines (valances) Putor dishes waing 39 stone Lay putor waing 50 stone for iron yetlins (Not entirely sure about the yotlins - reminds me of a Scots term for gates - but the meaning is the hooks and irons and spits etc which enable cooking over an open fire) Pan brass (A warming pan for beds probably yallow brass pott grass(?) with old copper A cubbort A Trenerer (probably trencher) Case a Lanhorn (A lantern. Because it's in the kitchen premises, probably a large, portable, glass candle lamp on a pole that would have accompanied William out after dark, carried by a servant. In the days before street lighting you took your own with you) A Skreen A chist (chest) A Browing copper Browing Loomes with old casks(?) Silver plate weighing 2 lbs(?) 8 oz for Table linnen with sheats . Since the inventories were taken as the "takers" moved from room to room, the items were listed together where they were found. Therefore, we can get an idea from the list of the number of rooms and, from the contents, the type of function of the room. From this, Drew Reed, who has considerable knowledge of the period, concluded the following:about the number and function of the various rooms in William Nicholson's house A. 2 bedsteads 2 suite of curtains with vallines 2 feather beds, 2 ??(bowlstors) 2 pai blankitts 4 rugs & a pair of olde hangings

    This looks like the two best/guest rooms - probably not in everyday use as they are so lightly furnished and have no chests for clothes storage - remember no closets in English houses.B. a Resting chair half (looks like dozn) Turkey Work chairs 2 cushins, a Bilyard Table A Drawing Table 5 chaires -

    This is his best parlour - maybe upstairs with the 2 bedrooms above. C. a bedstead, a other bed with bowlstor a suite of curtains, a pair of Blankitts a coverlid A Rug a Table 7 chaires & A court cubbort -

    I think this is probably either William Jr's bedchamber - probably a truckle bed beneath the fairly snug great bed (look at the extra rugs and blankets) plus tables and chairs (you received people in your chamber at this time as a sort of bed-sitting room. The court cupboard is probably his "desk". D. a Bedstead curtains with counterpaine annother bed with bowlstor, 2 pair Blankitts 2 coverlids -

    The younger daughters' room I'd reckon, which means that a pair of virginals with standard 5 senses - may also be in this room together with 7 Turkey work chairs a map A table A carpitt a trunk with 2 cushins or they may be in a room between this one - probably few corridors. Remember - rooms opened one into the next E. a bedstead vallineo (?) Curtains counterpaine with window curtains, A feather bed with bowlstor 3 blankitts A Rug A pair of hangings, 8 Chaires A Table with carpitt, A café of Drawers 5 picktures A glass image 2 wood stands -

    all these are in eldest daughter's room (eldest remaining at home). If old enough, she would have day to day control of the household after her mother's death. F. bed with bowelstor blankitts and coverlid, A suite of hangins 12 chaires A bedstead A glass A chimney board (?), A Table and A Great Chair, A bedstead and curtains another bed with bowelstor, A pair of blankitts a Rug a coverlid a carpitt a cobord -

    This is William's own bedchamber I suspect. I wonder if there was an adjoining closet where his manservant slept? At this date, servants had not yet all been banished to distant wings or attics. As there were as yet no bells to summon them, they had to be within calling distance 24/7 so they generally slept in the closet (that's the dressing room rather than a cupboard) or even in their master's bedroom on a truckle bed pulled out at night. If there were security issues, this might be the favoured solution. G. A furn (?) 6 chaires a wandis(?) Chair Tenn picktures a hanging chelf(?) with cushin, 2 Trunks ?? 2 cushins a Drawing Table 2 Round Tables a chiff (ss?), 2 carpitts with 2 map?s 6 Picktures one soing geas A c?e?? 15 chaires -

    This/these are the everyday living rooms - may be just a single common parlour but the way it's arranged makes me think it's a common parlour and adjoining dining parlour with the room division thus ------ H. 50 yards of stuf 2 bed Tirkes(?) with 6 pounds of linnen cloath - In a storage room I think, as may be I. 2 bedsteads a suite of curtains 2 other beds with bowlstors, 2 pair blankitts coverlid , A Table A cubbord a chist, 4 stoules A copper pann -

    Otherwise hard to determine the function of this room. J. a bedstead with curtains & other bed with coverlid A chist, a cubbet with 7 olde chaires with stoules -

    Now I think we're in the service area - the above looks like the senior servants room (a housekeeper?) as there is a curtained bed but only old chairs and stools. K. 2 beds 2 bowlstors A pair of blankitts 2 coverlids an old cubbord, 2 foot pares (?)with a chist -

    More - junior servants L. 3 beds 3 bowlstors 3 coverlids 3 blankitts, A suite of hangins and 2 full curtains vallines -

    The maids I reckon, in a sort of dormitory. M. Putor dishes waing 39 stone, Lay putor waing 50 stone -

    Pewter was still at this time the usual material for plates and tankards - porcelain was still a rare, imported and hugely expensive luxury from the Far East (and your William doesn't seem to have any) and local earthenware was fit only for food storage and preparation or the servants hall. The dishes could be serving dishes and the lay pewter the plates for the table or else the former could be decorative and the latter in daily use. At this date and social level, it's quite likely that the servants would still have eaten at the same table as the family - at least the upper servants. N. for iron yotlins(?), Pan brass yallow brass -

    The 'stove and batterie de cuisine' if you like! O. pott grass(?) with old copper -

    Possibly the water boiler in the back kitchen - to heat water for laundry and the (very) odd bath. These were still known as coppers in Northumbria into the C20, even though they'd long been made of iron and then steel.".
    From his will and the inventory of his belongings at the time of his death, we can conclude the following about William Nicholson's home and lifestyle: The household would seem to consist of at least 6 or 7 servants as well as the family, going on bed numbers - and assuming the lower servants shared beds, could be as many as 12. Rooms. in modern parlance, there appears to be a formal reception room, 2 guest bedrooms, 2 living rooms, 4 family bed-sitting rooms, one or possibly 2 upper servants rooms, 2 lower servants dormitories and the kitchen premises, probably containing a pantry, larder and brewhouse/scullery in addition to the main room. Plus various lumber rooms. Quite a substantial residence. As to what it looked like - that's much harder to say without knowing whether it was relatively newly built or quite an old structure and how big the plot it stood on may have been, to affect the regularity of the plan. All in all the number of rooms - there are 11 main ones here in addition to the kitchens when a good yeoman's house of the period would probably count only 5 or 6 - taken together with some rare and expensive contents, such as the billiard table and the virginals, and the number of servants is indicative of a very prosperous individual, certainly one of the burgess-élite of Berwick. The source of his wealth is not known but he may have been a merchant trading down the coast or across the North Sea with the Low Countries, Scandinavia and the Baltic ports.

    5. From Myra Johnson of Horncliffe, England

    15 September 1681. William son of William Nicholson, Berwick upon Tweed, Vintner, apprentice to David Stowe, Berwick upon Tweed, Burgess

    I do like this last one - I can just imagine from his will that William could have been a successful Wine Importer & Merchant!

    Lastly, I got a few baptisms to any William Nicholson in the relevant period. Nicholson has so many -different spellings I will stick to the letter N.

    20 Oct 1641 Anthoney son of William N.
    7 Oct. 1656 William son of William N
    11 Nov. 1657 Margart dau of William N.
    13 January 1660 Ellener dau of William N.
    25 Feb. 1661 Margrett dau. William N
    29 June 1663 Gulielmus filius Gulielmus N
    17 Aug. 1664 Ana dau William N.
    22 Feb. 1665 William son of William N.
    29 March 1669 Joseph son of William N
    9 Feb. 1670 Elizabeth dau William N.
    7 January 1697 Thomas son of William Nicholson, sergeant.

    It was stated on the apprentice entry roll of 1681 that William Nicholson was the son of William Nicholson, vintner, of Berwick. William was apprenticed to David Stow. This David Stow and his brother Richard were from a very wealthy merchant family in Berwick. They were involved in the importing of goods - eg. tobacco, silk, etc and timber from the Baltic states. David Stow was Mayor of Berwick, and the family remained very prominent for the next century or so. I should think to be apprenticed in this trade would have been a very good education for his future in business.
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  • Change Date: 7 Apr 2012 at 09:58:13



    Father: George NICHOLSON
    Mother: Eleanor

    Marriage 1 Anne b: ? in England
      Children
      1. Has No Children William NICHOLSON b: 1656 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England c: 7 Oct 1656 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England
      2. Has No Children Margaret NICHOLSON b: 1657 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England c: 11 Nov 1657 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England
      3. Has No Children Margaret NICHOLSON b: 1659 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England c: 1659 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England
      4. Has No Children Eleanor NICHOLSON b: 1660/1661 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England c: 13 Jan 1661 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England
      5. Has No Children Margaret NICHOLSON b: 1661/1662 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England c: 25 Feb 1661/1662 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England
      6. Has No Children William NICHOLSON b: 1663 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England c: 29 Jun 1663 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England
      7. Has No Children Anne NICHOLSON b: 1664 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England c: 17 Aug 1664 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England
      8. Has No Children Mary NICHOLSON b: 1664 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England c: 17 Aug 1664 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England
      9. Has Children William NICHOLSON b: 1665/1666 in Berwick-Upon-Tweed, England c: 22 Feb 1665/1666 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England
      10. Has No Children Joseph NICHOLSON b: 1668/1669 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England c: 30 Mar 1669 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England
      11. Has No Children Elizabeth NICHOLSON b: 1670/1671 in Berwick-Upon-Tweed, Northumberland, England c: 9 Feb 1671 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England

      Sources:
      1. Title: Will of William Nicholson probated in Durham, England in 1691
        Publication: Held at Durham University, Durham, England
        Text:

        In the Name of God Amen I William Nicholson the elder of the Borough of Barwick upon Tweed gentleman, being at this time sick and weak in body but blessed be to God of perfect and sound memory do make this my Last Will and Testament. Hereby, bequeathing my Soul to God who gave it me hoping for Eternal Salvation only by and through the alone merritts of his Dear Sonn & my precious Redeemer the Lord Jesus Christ; and by body to the Earth to be decently Interred at the Discretion of my executors William Nicholson my sonn and my nephew Cuthbert Brady of (? Birwick illegible - could be upon Tweed but it does not look like it) hereafter named; And for what worldly Estate the Lord hath been pleased to bestow upon me My mind and will is That all my houses burgages or tenements with the Appurtences Scituate Standing Lying & Coming within the Borough of Barwick upon Tweed aforesaid, And all my household goods moneys Plate & other my personal Estate whatsoever, of what kind or nature soever; And all other my Real and personal Estate whatsoever in any other place or places shall be sold and Disposed of after my Decease by my Executors William Nicholson and Cuthbert Brady hereafter named, with and for the payment of all my Just Debts by me owing & justly indebted to any person or persons whatsoever And for payment of mu funeral charges; And I do hereby Fully Impower my Said Executors William Nicholson and Cuthbert Brady to make sale of my said Burgages & tenements with the appurtones Scituate in Barwick aforesaid, And all other of my personal Estate whatsoever and every of them to any persons whatsoever for payment of my Said Just Debts and funeral charges; And my will is and I hereby bequeath unto my oldest Daughter Elliner, the new wife of John Forster the sume of (Ten?) pounds to be paid her forth & out of my said Real and personal Estate by my said Executors William Nicholson and Cuthbert Brady hereafter named, from and after my Said Just Debts & funeral charges are paid or Secured to be paid; And after the Same is paid my Will is, and I hereby give and bequeath the remainder of the money obtained for the Same, to my Children hereafter named in manner as is here after Expenses (that is to say his note not mine) After all my Just Debts and funeral charges & the aforesaid sume of Ten pounds to my Said Daughter Elliner is cleerly and fully paid out of my Said Real and personal Estate, which I hereby charge with & for the payment of the same Then my Minde and Will is and I hereby bequeath unto my Sonn william Nicholson The one full moyety or halfe parte of what shall happen to be behinde & over the payment of my Just Debts funeral charges & the aforesaid Sume of Tenn pounds to my said Daughter Elliner; And the other moyety or full half parte thereof I hereby give and bequeath unto my Three daughters Margaret Nicholson, Anne Nicholson & Elizabeth Nicholson, to be equally divided amongst my Said Three daughters, in three equal partes, every one of them having an Equal proporcon, of the Said other Moyety Last above bequeathed; and I do hereby nominate authorize & appoint my Said sonne William Nicholson and my Said Nephew Cuthbert Brady to be Executors of this my Last Will and Testament, hereby revoaking renouncing and Disannulling all other & former wills by me heretofore made, making this my Last Will & Testament firm & stable; And I do hereby declare this to be my Last Will & Testament In Witnesse thereof I ? here unto set my hand & Seal the fifteenth day of April in the second year of the Reigne of our Sovereign Lord & Lady William & Mary by the Grace of God King & Queen of England Scotland France & Ireland, Defenders of the faith Etc. Anno Domini 1690

        Wm Nicholson (signature) plus seal

        Signatures of witnesses hard to read first one and last two partially torn off)
      2. Title: Ancestry of Albert Gallatin and Hannah Nicholson
        Publication: New York, Press of T.A. Wright, 1916
        Note:
        Ancestry of Albert Gallatin, born Geneva, Switzerland, January 29, 1761; died New York, August 12, 1849, and of Hannah Nicholson, born New York, September 11, 1766; died New York, May 14, 1849, with a list of their descendents to the second and third generation. Comp. from Life of Albert Gallatin, by Henry Adams, 1879, History of Nicholson family, by Byam Kerby Stevens, 1911, and other sources.
      3. Title: Nicholson - being a compilation of Family Trees of Nicolson-Nicholson
        Author: Rev'd Nigel Nicholson
        Publication: Nicholson Family Library, The Rectory, Cranleigh, Surrey, England 1996
      4. Title: Inventory of belongings of William Nicholson at time of his death:
        Text: bedsteads 2 suite of curtains with vallines (prob valance, my note) 2 feather beds
        2 ??(bowlstors) 2 pair blankitts 4 rugs & a pair of olde hangings
        a Resting chair half (looks like dozn) T(?)urkey Work chairs 2 cushins
        a Bilyard Table A Drawing Table 5 chaires a bedstead
        a other bed with bowlstor a suite of curtains
        a pair of Blankitts a coverlid A Rug a Table 7 chaires & A court cubbort
        a Bedstead curtains with counterpaine (my note - quilt or bedspread) a other bed with bowlstor
        2 pair Blankitts 2 coverlids a pair of virginals with standard 5 senses (?)
        7 Turkey work chairs a map A table A carpitt a trunk with 2 cushins
        a bedstead vallineo (?) Curtains counterpaine with window curtains
        A feather bed with bowlstor 3 blankitts A Rug A pair of hangings
        8 Chaires A Table with carpitt
        A case of Drawers 5 picktures A glass image 2 wood stands
        bed with bowelstor blankitts and coverlid
        A suite of hangins 12 chaires A bedstead A glass A chimney board (?)
        A Table and A Great Chair
        A bedstead and curtains another bed with bowelstor
        A pair of blankitts a Rug a coverlid a carpitt a cobord (?)
        A furn (?) 6 chaires a wandis(?) Chair Tenn picktures a hanging chelf(?) with cushin
        2 Trunks ?? 2 cushins a Drawing Table 2 Round Tables a chist
        2 carpitts with 2 map?s
        6 Picktures one soing geas A clock 15 chaires
        50 yards of stuf(?) 2 bed Tirkes(?) with 6 pounds of linnen cloath
        2 bedsteads a suite of curtains 2 other beds with bowlstors
        2 pair blankitts coverlid A Table A cubbord a chist (chest?)
        4 stoules A copper pann
        a bedstead with curtains & other bed with coverlid A chist
        a cubbet(?) with 7 olde chaires with stoules
        2 beds 2 bowlstors A pair of blankitts 2 coverlids an old cubbord
        2 foot pares (?)with a chist (?)
        3 beds 3 bowlstors 3 coverlids 3 blankitts A suite of hangins and 2 full curtains vallines(?)
        Putor dishes waing 39 stone
        Lay putor waing 50 stone
        for iron yetlins(?) Pan brass yallow brass pott grass(?) with old copper
        A cubbort A Trenerer (probably trencher, my note) Case a Lanhorn(?) A Skreen
        A chist(?)
        A Browing copper Browing Loomes with old casks(?)
        Silver plate weighing 2 lbs(?) 8 oz
        for Table linnen with sheats

        An Internet friend in Scotland, Drew Reed, made the following explanations and interpretations to some of the items listed in the will and inventory of William Nicholson which give some insights into his lifestyle.

        From the will: "That all my houses burgages or tenements with the Appurtences". The distinction - burgages and tenements are land holdings, with or without houses standing thereon.A burgage was freehold and conferred on the owner the status of burgess (cf colonial Virginia House of Burgesses) and with that all sorts of rights and duties within the borough, possibly including the right to vote in municipal or maybe even parliamentary elections. A tenement was leasehold, held usually on a rental of a specified length - but in modern parlance in Scotland a 'tenement' has come to mean a working-class apartment. Inventory
        2 ??(bowlstors) - Not really bolsters in the modern sense - feather pillows most likely. 4 rugs & a pair of olde hangings - The rugs could be for use on either floor or bed. The hangings are probably cloth wall hangings of some description. a Bilyard Table - Not billiards in the modern sense - more like table croquet at this period but this again rather an upmarket piece of kit. A Drawing Table - Not a modern architects drawing table! He means a (with)drawing room table - a portable one that could be moved about as required. A court cubbort - A court cupboard is the predecessor of the chest of drawers - a double cupboard below with another, set back above, highly carved and decorated. If you recognise the turkey-work chairs from the movies, you'll know what these are too. A glass image - A mirror a chmimney board - Used to close up a fireplace not in use (at least that's the more recent meaning). Just possibly an embroidered firescreen - which you'll have seen - on an adjustable pole to protect ladies' complexions from the heat of the fire. A furn (?) 6 chaires a wandis(?) - Chair, A set of six chairs and a carver (one with arms)
        a hanging chelf(?) with cushin - Probably a wall shelf with cover/vallance - maybe to display his plate? 2 Trunks - Travelling trunks for clothes. a chiff - If not another chist/kist (these respectively the Northern English and Scots words for chest) - a chess set?? A copper pann - A warming pan for beds probably. for iron yotlins(?) - Not entirely sure about the yotlins - reminds me of a Scots term for gates - but the meaning is the hooks and irons and spits etc which enable cooking over an open fire. Lanhorn(?) - A lantern. Because it's in the kitchen premises, probably a large, portable, glass candle lamp on a pole that would have accompanied William out after dark, carried by a servant. In the days before street lighting you took your own with you. Now what about room functions. Also remember, this is long before the days of one bed-one bedroom.
        2 bedsteads 2 suite of curtains wwith vallines 2 feather beds, 2 ??(bowlstors) 2 pai blankitts 4 rugs & a pair of olde hangings - This looks like the two best/guest rooms - probably not in everyday use as they are so lightly furnished and have no chests for clothes storage - remember no closets in English houses. a Resting chair half (looks like dozn) T(?)urkey Work chairs 2 cushins, a Bilyard Table A Drawing Table 5 chaires - This is his best parlour - maybe upstairs with the 2 bedrooms above. a bedstead, a other bed with bowlstor a suite of curtains, a pair of Blankitts a coverlid A Rug a Table 7 chaires & A court cubbort - I think this is probably either William Jr's bedchamber - probably a truckle bed beneath the fairly snug great bed (look at the extra rugs and blankets) plus tables and chairs (you received people in your chamber at this time as a sort of bed-sitting room. The court cupboard is probably his "desk". a Bedstead curtains with counterpaine annother bed with bowlstor, 2 pair Blankitts 2 coverlids - The younger daughters' room I'd reckon, which means that a pair of virginals with standard 5 senses - may also be in this room together with 7 Turkey work chairs a map A table A carpitt a trunk with 2 cushins or they may be in a room between this one - probably few corridors. Remember - rooms opened one into the next a bedstead vallineo (?) Curtains counterpaine with window curtains, A feather bed with bowlstor 3 blankitts A Rug A pair of hangings, 8 Chaires A Table with carpitt, A café of Drawers 5 picktures A glass image 2 wood stands - all these are in eldest daughter's room (eldest remaining at home). If old enough, she would have day to day control of the household after her mother's death. bed with bowelstor blankitts and coverlid, A suite of hangins 12 chaires A bedstead A glass A chimney board (?), A Table and A Great Chair, A bedstead and curtains another bed with bowelstor, A pair of blankitts a Rug a coverlid a carpitt a cobord (?) - This is William's own bedchamber I suspect. I wonder if there was an adjoining closet where his manservant slept? At this date, servants had not yet all been banished to distant wings or attics. As there were as yet no bells to summon them, they had to be within calling distance 24/7 so they generally slept in the closet (that's the dressing room rather than a cupboard) or even in their master's bedroom on a truckle bed pulled out at night. If there were security issues, this might be the favoured solution. A furn (?) 6 chaires a wandis(?) Chair Tenn picktures a hanging chelf(?) with cushin, 2 Trunks ?? 2 cushins a Drawing Table 2 Round Tables a chiff (ss?), 2 carpitts with 2 map?s > 6 Picktures one soing geas A c?e?? 15 chaires - This/these are the everyday living rooms - may be just a single common parlour but the way it's arranged makes me think it's a common parlour and adjoining dining parlour with the room division thus ------ 50 yards of stuf(?) 2 bed Tirkes(?) with 6 pounds of linnen cloath - In a storage room I think, as may be
        2 bedsteads a suite of curtains 2 other beds with bowlstors, 2 pair blankitts coverlid ,A Table A cubbord a chist (chest?), 4 stoules A copper pann - Otherwise hard to determine the function of this room. a bedstead with curtains & other bed with coverlid A chist, a cubbet(?) with 7 olde chaires with stoules - Now I think we're in the service area - the above looks like the senior servants room (a housekeeper?) as there is a curtained bed but only old chairs and stools. 2 beds 2 bowlstors A pair of blankitts 2 coverlids an old cubbord, 2 foot pares (?)with a chist (?) - More - junior servants 3 beds 3 bowlstors 3 coverlids 3 blankitts, A suite of hangins and 2 full curtains vallines(?) - The maids I reckon, in a sort of dormitory. Putor dishes waing 39 stone, Lay putor waing 50 stone - Pewter was still at this time the usual material for plates and tankards - porcelain was still a rare, imported and hugely expensive luxury from the Far East (and your William doesn't seem to have any) and local earthenware was fit only for food storage and preparation or the servants hall. The dishes could be serving dishes and the lay pewter the plates for the table or else the former could be decorative and the latter in daily use. At this date and social level, it's quite likely that the servants would still have eaten at the same table as the family - at least the upper servants. for iron yotlins(?), Pan brass yallow brass - The 'stove and batterie de cuisine' if you like! pott grass(?) with old copper - Possibly the water boiler in the back kitchen - to heat water for laundry and the (very) odd bath. These were still known as coppers in Northumbria into the C20, even though they'd long been made of iron and then steel
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