Name: Joseph NICHOLSON
Given Name: Joseph
Birth: 6 Aug 1709 in Anne Arundel County, Maryland
Christening: 18 Oct 1709 All Hallow's, Anne Arundel County, Maryland
Death: 1787 in Chestertown, Kent County, Maryland
1. Church records, 1685-1899 All Hallows Parish (Davidsonville, Maryland: Episcopal) Church records FHL US/CAN Film 13279 Item 1
1 2 3 4 5 6
Change Date: 27 Apr 2006 at 10:25:53
2. Joseph Nicholson's house, The White Swan Tavern, in Chestertown, Maryland:www.chestertown.com/whiteswan/
Colonel Joseph Nicholson
(6 Aug 1709 Anne Arundel County, MD -1787 Kent Co., MD)
Joseph Nicholson, son of William and Elizabeth (Burgess) Nicholson, was born in Annapolis, Maryland August 6, 1709. After being educated in England, he returned to America and settled in Chestertown, Kent County, Maryland. In his early life a commander of a ship engaged in English trade, he ultimately became a merchant of prominence, a large land owner, and a man of wealth. In 1733, he built his home in Chestertown. Joseph's home is now restored as a bed-and-breakfast inn (see WEB site, www.chestertown,com/whiteswan/). He was conspicuous in public life, being a Deputy Clerk of Kent County and Deputy Commissioner in 1755, 1760, 1771 and 1773 until the time of his death. He was a colonel in the Kent County militia and High Sheriff of the County from 1763-1768.
Joseph Nicholson was one of the most vocal and ardent proponents for separation from England and served as a colonel in the Maryland Militia during the Revolutionary War. Joseph Nicholson had been one of the founders of the Kent Free School, first public institution of higher education on the Eastern Shore. And, in 1783, he was one of the founders of Washington College in Chestertown. Washington College is the 10th oldest college in the U.S. and the first and only college named for George Washington with his blessing.
Joseph Nicholson married, first, about 1732, Hannah (Smith) Scott, daughter of James and Sarah (Hynson) Smith and widow of Colonel Edward Scott of Kent County. Hannah was born March 14, 1708 and died between 1760 and 1765. By her, Joseph Nicholson had seven sons and one daughter. He married, second, about 1765, Mary Hopper, daughter of Colonel William Hopper of Queen Anne's County, Maryland. Mary Hopper was born in 1734 and died in 1798. By, her he had one son, Joseph Hopper Nicholson, and one daughter, Henrietta Nicholson.
3. Service: Served as a Colonel of the Kent Militia, 1763-68. He was called upon by the Council of Safety and was appointed by the Coucil of Safety one of the judges of the court of Appeals of Kent. Co., MD, June 4, 1778. (Maryland Archives, Vol. 12, p.19-20,417,Vol,. 16, p.444,446,480, Vol.21, p 122)
4. Sons of Liberty, Kent County, Maryland, 1766
5. Served on Committeeof Correspondence in 1774 in Kent County
Taken from: PICTORIAL FIELD BOOK OF THE REVOLUTION, VOLUME II, BY BENSON J. LOSSING, 1850.
On the 1st of March, 1766, the Sons of Liberty of Baltimore, Kent, and Anne Arundel counties held their first formal meeting at the court-house in Annapolis. The Reverend Andrew Lendrum was appointed moderator, and William Paca (afterward a signer of the Declaration of Independence) was chosen secretary.It is unclear which one but either Joseph Nicholson (Sr.) or his son, Joseph Nicholson, Jr.,, from Kent county, presented an address from that district, signed by twenty-three of the leading men. 26 It was an application to the chief justice of the provincial court, the secretary and commissary general, and judges of the land-offices, asking them to resume the business of their respective offices regardless of the law. The Anne Arundel and Baltimore committees also signed the request, 27 which, being forwarded to those officers, was complied with. The Stamp Act thus virtually became a nullity a month before the intelligence of its repeal arrived. That intelligence reached Annapolis at noon on the 5th of April [1766.], and diffused unusual joy through the city. The remainder of the day was spent by the people in mirth and festivity, and at an assemblage in the evening, "all loyal and patriotic toasts were drank."
The following are the names of the Sons of Liberty of Kent County, appended to the address: "Joseph Nicholson, William Ringgold, William Stephenson, Thomas Ringgold, Jr., Joseph M?Hard, Gideon M?Cauley, Daniel Fox, Benjamin Binning, William Bordley, Jarvis James, William Stukely, Joseph Nicholson. Jr., James Porter, Thomas Ringgold, James Anderson, Thomas Smyth, William Murray, George Garnet, S. Boardley, Jr., Peroy Frisby, Henry Vandike, and John Bolton."
6. Oath of Allegiance on 22 Apr 1740, Kent County, Maryland
7. 1772 Pewholder #2 Chester Church
8. Served on Committee of Correspondence in 1774 in Kent County
9. Inh KE:26 - Had: Pentridge, Stepney Heath Manor,Barwick (Berwick), lot in Chestertown, Scotts Lot, High Park, Rousbys Discovery, Addition, Thomas Purchase, Prevention
10. "Queen Anne's County, Maryland - Its Early History and Development" by Frederic Emory: "In 1779, a deed of partition was executed by Joseph Nicholson, of Kent County and Mary, his wife, Joseph Nicholson, Jr., of Queen Anne's County, and Elizabeth, his wife, and William Charles Neill, of Queen Anne's County, for several tracts of land among which was Chesterfield, 900 acres, lacking one acre which had been conveyed to William Hopper".
The 1783 Tax assessment lists the following :Joseph Nicholson Chesterfield 350 aJoseph Nicholson Chesterfield 307 aWilliam Charles Neil Chesterfield 133 aWilliam Hopper Chesterfield 1 a
11. 4-21-1769 QA LR - Joseph Nicholson and w Mary Gent KE sell to John Seth pl 221a Green Springs
12. 1736-1769 Inh KE:26 Had" Pentridge, Stephen Heath Manor, Barwick, lot in Chestertwon, Scotts Lot, High Park, Rousby's Discovery, Addition, Thomas Purchase, Kings Prevention
13. 1772 Inh KE:154 Pewholder #2 Chester PE Church
14. Maryland State Archives Patents Index 54
Joseph Nicholson 1730 "Clarks Directions", Anne Arundel County, 700 acres (MSA P.L. #7, 501); certificate in name of William Nicholson (MAS Liber I.L. #13,folio 458)
Joseph Nicholson 1748 "Barwick", Kent County, 25 acres (MSA BY & GS #1, folio 331; MSA T.I. #3, folio 448)
15. Edward C. Papenfuse, Alan F. Day, David W. Jordan, and Gregory A. Stiverson, A Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature, 1635-1789, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1985
Father: William NICHOLSON b: 1665/1666 in Berwick-Upon-Tweed, England c: 22 Feb 1665/1666 in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England
Mother: Elizabeth BURGESS b: 5 Aug 1682 in All Hallow's Parish, Anne Arundel County, Maryland
Hannah SMITH b: 14 Mar 1708 in Kent County, Maryland
in St. Paul's Parish, Kent County, Maryland
Vol. 15, No. 1, February 1974, Marriages in St. Paul Parish, Kent County, Maryland, Page 13
Edward Scott Hannah Smith 7 Oct 1725
- William NICHOLSON b: in Chestertown, Kent County, MD
- Joseph NICHOLSON Jr. b: 17/28 Feb 1732/1733 in Chestertown, Kent County, Maryland
- James NICHOLSON b: 1737/1738 in Chestertown, Kent County, Maryland
- Elizabeth NICHOLSON b: ABT 1740 in Chestertown, Kent County, Maryland
- Samuel NICHOLSON b: 1743 in Chestertown, Kent County, Maryland
- Benjamin NICHOLSON b: BEF 1745 in Chestertown, Kent County, Maryland
- Thomas NICHOLSON b: ABT 1755 in Chestertown, Kent County, MD
- John NICHOLSON b: 1756 in Chestertown, Kent County, Maryland
Mary HOPPER b: 20 Aug 1734 in Queen Anne's County, Maryland
- Mary NICHOLSON b: AFT 1765 in Chestertown, Kent County, Maryland
- Henrietta NICHOLSON b: 25 Nov 1770 in Chestertown, Kent County, Maryland
- Joseph Hopper NICHOLSON b: 1777 in Chestertown, Kent County, Maryland
- Title: Will of Joseph Nicholson, 1787, Kent County, Maryland
Publication: Maryland State Archives, Annapolis, MD
In the Name of God Amen I Joseph Nicholson of Kent County in the province of Maryland being of perfect & disposing mind and memory do ordain constitute direct appoint this to be my last Will & Testament hereby revoking all former Wills by me made.
Inprimis (?) I give and bequeath to my wife Mary Nicholson in lieu and Effectual bar of her Dower or thirds of my Estate (for and during her Widowhood only) all the Negroes & their Increase all the Stock in kind and Quallity as by me received from her Fathers Estate, and Likewise the Sum of Four Hundred & seventy pounds common money, and also two Negro women named Bett and Dark & their Increase and the House and Lott wherein I now live, and upon her Death or future marriage, I give and bequeath the Negroes, Stock, and money afd unto my two Children Joseph Nicholson and Henrietta Nicholson (Children by my wife Mary) and the issue of their bodies lawfully begotten, and in case they Dye before they arrive (my son Joseph) to the age of twenty one years and my Daughter Henrietta to the age of Sixteen or any of marriage then over to the issue of my son Joseph Nicholson (by my first wife Hannah) and his wife Elizabeth by them to be begotten, Equally to be divided per capita or by the head.
My will, desire is that in case my wife does not stand to this my Will and accept the Devise afd as an Effectual bar of her Dower of my Estate then, in such case, all my Estate shall be divided between my children by my first Wife Hannah Nicholson.
I devise to my son Joseph Nicholson and his heirs (upon the death or coverture of my wife) the House and Lott wherein I now live, he paying unto my other children the sum of Six Hundred pounds in Spanish Dollars at Seven Shillings & six pence each or half ?? at three pound each, or any passing current money equal to Gold, silver at the Denominations afd, within ?? twelve months after Limitations shall take effect, equally to be divided between them, and in case he should not think this proper to accept of the House & Lott afd or the terms afd, my Will is that my said son or his Executors shall ? The same to publick sale, and the money therefrom arising to be equally between my Children by my first Wife.
I give and bequeath to my said son Joseph Nicholson and his Heirs forever part of a tract of Land Called Stepney Heath, and also one other tract of Land called Berwick both joining and lying in ?? in Kent County, for paying unto my other children by my first wife the sum of Ten Thousand five Hundred pounds in Spanish milled Dollars at Seven Shillings & six pence each, or half ? At three pounds each, or any passing current money equal to Gold, Silver at the Denominations ads, equally to be divided between them within two years after my death, and in case he does not ? to accept of the Lands afd on the Terms afd, then in such case my Will Desire and Intention is that my next eldest son then living Shall have them on the Terms afd and devised to my son Joseph afd, and in case of his refusal my Will is that each of my sons according to seniority shall have the Refusal of these in manner and for as afd, and in case all of them refuse them, that I devise them to my Executor to be set up at publick sale, he giving reasonable notice, and that the money there from arising shall Equally be divided between my Children by my first wife.
My Will & Desire is that all my personal Estate undisposed of, be equally divided between my Children by my first Wife, and my intention in this and all the devises afd is that in case any of my Children should Dye before me, that their Representatives shall have the portion so left to them respectively.
I give unto my son James Nicholson and his Heirs forever my Water Lott lying in Chester Town.
Whereas by the fifth article in this my Will I have devised away all the Residue of my personal Estate, But my Intention is that my wife shall have my Carriage and Horses.
My Will & Desire is that my Stock of Negroes, Cattle, Horses, Hoggs & Sheep shall be put into Lotts and equally divided among my Children by my first wife, by my Executor, the Negroes before Specifically devised Excepted.
Whereas by the general ? of my Children by my first wife with the several devises afd, my Daughter Elizabeth Gordon is included, now my Will Intention and meaning is, in case her husband Charles Gordon should survive me, that then that sum or sums of money that would be her proportion of my Estate so Devised, shall be by my Executor put out to Interest for her use during her Coverture, with her said Husband, and upon his death in case she survive him, that then it be hers at her free and full Disposal. But in case he should survive her I devise the proportion afd unto her Children that should be living at the time of her Death, equally to be divided between them.
Lastly I nominate constitute and appoint my living Wife Mary Nicholson my whole & Sole Executrix of this my Last Will and Testimony. I witness whereof I have here unto set my Hand and Seal this 15th Day of July 17??.
As a Codicil to this my last Will and Testament my will and desire is that all the Negroes, Stock of Horses, Cattle, sheep, Hoggs, plate and Household Furnitures that I got by the death of Wm Hopper shall devise after my death to my wife Mary Nicholson and the Negroes and their Increase I got with her at my marriage as also a Negro girl named Mary that was given to My Daughter Mary by her grand father Wm Hopper and her Increase, and the plate that was marked with my Daughter Mary?s name, as also one Hundred twenty ? wheat. In Witness whereof I have here unto set my Hand and Seal this sixth day of May 1787
- Title: Ancestry of Albert Gallatin and Hannah Nicholson
Publication: New York, Press of T.A. Wright, 1916
Ancestry of Albert Gallatin, born Geneva, Switzerland, January 29, 1761; died New York, August 12, 1849, and of Hannah Nicholson, born New York, September 11, 1766; died New York, May 14, 1849, with a list of their descendents to the second and third generation. Comp. from Life of Albert Gallatin, by Henry Adams, 1879, History of Nicholson family, by Byam Kerby Stevens, 1911, and other sources.
- Title: A Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature, 1635-1789
Author: Edward C. Papenfuse, Alan F. Day, David W. Jordan, and Gregory A. Stiverson
Publication: The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1985
HOPPER, WILLIAM (by 1747-1806). BORN: between 1741 and 1747 in Queen Anne's County; only son. NATIVE: third generation. RESIDED: in Queen Anne's County (later became part of Caroline County) until 1785; Queen Anne's County, 1785 until death. FAMILY BACKGROUND. FATHER: William Hopper (1707-1772). MOTHER: Mary Anne (?-1747), daughter of Thomas Hynson Wright (1688-1747) and wife Mary Turbutt; granddaughter of Solomon Wright (ca. 1655-1717). STEPMOTHER: Sarah Dockery (?-ca. 1775). UNCLE: Thomas Wright (?-ca. 1784). AUNT: Ann Wright (?-by 1754), who married Edward Oldham (1709 - 1773). SISTER: Mary Anne (1742-by 1792), who married second, James Bordley (? - a. 1793). HALF SISTERS: Mary; Elizabeth (1739 - 1806), who married Joseph Nicholson, Jr. (?-1786); Henrietta; Sally (?-1761); and Dorothy. FIRST COUSINS: Samuel Turbutt Wright(1749-1810); Ann Oldham (?-by 1794), who married Joshua Clarke (?-1781); Hannah Oldham (?-1828), who married Nicholas Martin (1743-ca.1808). MARRIED first, by 1769 his first cousin Elizabeth (?-by 1776), daughter of Edward Oldham (1709-1773) and wife Ann Wright (?-by 1754); stepdaughter of Ann Goldsborough (1732-?); granddaughter of John Oldham (?-1729); stepgranddaughter of Nicholas Goldsborough (ca. 1689-1766); niece of Hannah Oldham (1702-1759), who married James Edge (ca. 1710-1757), Mary Anne Wright (?-1747), who married William Hopper(1707-1772), and Thomas Wright (?-ca. 1784); stepniece of Thomas Goldsborough (ca. 1728-1793). Her sisters were Anne (?-by 1794), who married Joshua Clarke(?-1781); Hannah (?-1828), who married Nicholas Martin (1743-ca. 1808); and Mary (7-by 1772). Her first cousins were Samuel Turbutt Wright(1749-1810); Mary Ann Hopper (1742-by 1792), who married second, James Bordley (?-ca. 1793). ADDITIONAL COMMENTS: by 1759 Elizabeth and her sister Anne were living with their aunt Hannah Oldham Edge from whom they inherited the lands of their uncle James Edge(ca. 1710-1757). MARRIED second, on April 17, 1776, Ann, daughter of Daniel Cox. CHILDREN: SONS William (?-1793); Daniel Cox (1777-?), a lawyer by 1807; Thomas Wright (1783-?), a surgeon's mate in the Thirty-eighth Regiment, Maryland Militia in 1808, who married on August 9, 1808, Ann Emory (ca. 1789-1821) Philemon Blake (1791-?), a lawyer, who married first, Rebecca (ca. 1794-1822), and second, on September 2, 1822, Margaret Anne Thomas, and William (a minor in 1807). DAUGHTERS: Sarah (1779-?); Mary (1787-?); and Anna Maria. PRIVATE CAREER EDUCATION: entered the University of Pennsylvania on May 3, 1762, attended until 1765, but did not graduate. RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION: Anglican; Methodist by 1794. SOCIAL STATUS AND ACTIVITIES: Gent., 1767, subscriber to Washington College, Chestertown, Kent County. OCCUPATIONAL PROFILE: merchant, 1774, in partnership with James Kent (ca. 1738-1805); farmer, 1795. PUBLIC CAREER LEGISLATIVE SERVICE: Convention, Caroline County, 5th, 1775; Lower House, Caroline County, 1780 (elected, but did not attend; resigned on November 1, 1780), 1781-1782, 1782 - 1783, 1783. LOCAL OFFICES: St. Paul's Parish Vestry, Queen Anne's County, in office 1771-1774; justice, Queen Anne's County, commissioned 1773 and 1794; Committee of Correspondence, Caroline County, elected 1774; sheriff, Caroline County, commissioned 1774, 1775, 1777, and 1778; trustee for the poor, Queen Anne's County, 1801 - 1805. MILITARY SERVICE: captain Caroline County Militia, by 1777, colonel, by 1806. Criticized by Col. Mordecai Gist in a letter to Gov. Thomas Johnson after the Battle of Germantown in 1777 in which Hopper was said to have been attacked "with qualms of sickness" that forced him to leave his regiment when under attack. WEALTH DURING LIFE TIME. PERSONAL PROPERTY: assessed value £1,015.0.0 current money, including 20 slaves 1783; at least 21 slaves, 1803. Declared insolvent in 1788, at which time his personal property included 59 slaves and 86 oz. plate; he was able to repurchase 21 of these slaves in 1803. LAND AT FIRST ELECTION: at least 3,167 acres in Queen Anne's, Talbot, and Caroline counties (at least 1,028 acres inherited from his father; 1,877 acres through his first marriage, at least 1,297 acres of which was given to his wife in 1759 by her aunt Hannah Edge, widow of James Edge; and one-third share of 786 acres held in partnership with John Markland and John Brown). SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN LAND BETWEEN FIRST ELECTION AND DEATH: obtained 1,713 acres through his second marriage, 1776; charged with 4,246 acres in Queen Anne's, Talbot, and Caroline counties, 1783; turned at least 4,753 acres over to trustees when he declared insolvency 1788; repurchased ca. 3,400 acres, 1803. WEALTH AT DEATH: Died: in late November 1806 in Queen Anne?s County; size of estate unknown.
- Title: Nicholson - being a compilation of Family Trees of Nicolson-Nicholson
Author: Rev'd Nigel Nicholson
Publication: Nicholson Family Library, The Rectory, Cranleigh, Surrey, England 1996
- Title: Inventory of belongings at time of death.
Text: Many pages, too extensive to list here. See appendix in family history text.
- Title: All Hallow's Protestant Episcopal Church Parish Register